Kansai International Airport

"Osaka Airport" redirects here. For the domestic airport serving Osaka, see Osaka International Airport.
Kansai International Airport
Kansai Kokusai Kūkō
WMO: 47774
Airport type Public
Operator Kansai Airports[1]
Serves Greater Osaka Area
Location Izumisano, Sennan, & Tajiri
Osaka, Japan
Hub for
Elevation AMSL 5 m / 17 ft
Coordinates 34°26′03″N 135°13′58″E / 34.43417°N 135.23278°E / 34.43417; 135.23278Coordinates: 34°26′03″N 135°13′58″E / 34.43417°N 135.23278°E / 34.43417; 135.23278
Website www.kansai-airport.or.jp/en/index.asp

Location in Japan

Direction Length Surface
m ft
06R/24L 3,800 12,467 Asphalt concrete
06L/24R 4,000 13,123 Asphalt concrete
Statistics (2015)
Aircraft movements 163,506
(Increase 15%)
Passenger movements 23,214,756
(Increase 20%)
International passenger movements 16,250,323
(Increase 24%)
Freight volume in tonnes 719,331
(Increase -0.5%)
International Freight volume in tonnes 697,374
(Increase 10%)
Statistics from New Kansai International Airport Company, Ltd.[3]

Kansai International Airport (関西国際空港 Kansai Kokusai Kūkō) (IATA: KIX, ICAO: RJBB) is an international airport located on an artificial island in the middle of Osaka Bay, 38 km (24 mi) southwest of Ōsaka Station,[4] located within three municipalities, including Izumisano (north),[5] Sennan (south),[6] and Tajiri (central),[7] in Osaka Prefecture, Japan. The airport is off the Honshu shore and was designed by Italian architect Renzo Piano. The airport serves as an international hub for All Nippon Airways, Japan Airlines, and Nippon Cargo Airlines, and also serves as a hub for Peach, the first international low-cost carrier in Japan.

It is colloquially known as Kankū (関空) in Japanese.

Kansai opened 4 September 1994 to relieve overcrowding at Osaka International Airport, which is closer to the city of Osaka and now handles only domestic flights. During the 2006 fiscal year, KIX had 116,475 aircraft movements, of which 73,860 were international (31 countries, 71 cities), and 42,615 were domestic (19 cities). The total number of passengers was 16,689,658 of which 11,229,444 were international, and 5,460,214 were domestic, sixth in Japan and second in Osaka area. However, in 2009, airport traffic has fallen by almost 20% in just two years to 13.4 million.[8] In 2010 airport traffic had risen to over 14 million, with international passengers accounting for approximately 10.4 million and domestic passengers accounting for approximately 3.7 million.[9] Freight volume was at 802,162 tonnes total, of which 757,414 t were international (18th in the world), and 44,748 t were domestic.[10] The 4,000 m × 60 m (13,123 ft × 197 ft) second runway was opened on 2 August 2007. As of June 2014, Kansai Airport has become an Asian hub, with 780 weekly flights to Asia and Australasia (including freight 119), 59 weekly flights to Europe and the Middle East (freight 5), and 80 weekly flights to North America (freight 42).[11]


3rd floor boarding lobby, part of the longest airport concourse in the world

In the 1960s, when the Kansai region was rapidly losing trade to Tokyo, planners proposed a new airport near Kobe and Osaka. Osaka International Airport, located in the densely populated suburbs of Itami and Toyonaka, was surrounded by buildings; it could not be expanded, and many of its neighbours had filed complaints because of noise pollution problems.

After the protests surrounding New Tokyo International Airport (now Narita International Airport), which was built with expropriated land in a rural part of Chiba Prefecture, planners decided to build the airport offshore. The new airport was part of a number of new developments to revitalize Osaka, which had been losing economic and cultural ground to Tokyo for most of the century.[12]

Initially, the airport was planned to be built near Kobe, but the city of Kobe refused the plan, so the airport was moved to a more southerly location on Osaka Bay. There it could be open 24 hours per day, unlike its predecessor in the city.


Satellite photo of Kansai Airport (lower-right island) in Osaka Bay. Kobe Airport is being built on the unfinished island near the middle of the photo. Central Osaka is in the upper-right corner, along with Osaka International.
Closeup of the artificial island

An artificial island, 4 km (2.5 mi) long and 2.5 km (1.6 mi) wide, was proposed. Engineers needed to overcome the extremely high risks of earthquakes and typhoons (with storm surges of up to 3 m (10 ft)).

Construction started in 1987. The sea wall was finished in 1989 (made of rock and 48,000 tetrapods). Three mountains were excavated for 21,000,000 m3 (27,000,000 cu yd) of landfill. 10 000 workers and 10 million work hours over three years, using eighty ships, were needed to complete the 30-metre (98 ft) layer of earth over the sea floor and inside the sea wall. In 1990, a three kilometer bridge was completed to connect the island to the mainland at Rinku Town, at a cost of $1 billion. Completion of the artificial island increased the area of Osaka Prefecture just enough to move it past Kagawa Prefecture in size (leaving Kagawa as the smallest by area in Japan).

The bidding and construction of the airport was a source of international trade friction during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Prime Minister Yasuhiro Nakasone responded to American concerns, particularly from Senator Frank Murkowski, that bids would be rigged in Japanese companies' favour by providing special offices for prospective international contractors,[13] which ultimately did little to ease the participation of foreign contractors in the bidding process.[14] Later, foreign airlines complained that two-thirds of the departure hall counter space had been allocated to Japanese carriers, disproportionately to the actual carriage of passengers through the airport.[15]

The island had been predicted to sink 5.7 m (19 ft) by the most optimistic estimate as the weight of the material used for construction compressed the seabed silts. However, by 1999, the island had sunk 8.2 m (27 ft) – much more than predicted. The project became the most expensive civil works project in modern history after twenty years of planning, three years of construction and fifteen billion (US) dollars of investment. Much of what was learned went into the successful artificial islands in silt deposits for New Kitakyushu Airport, Kobe Airport, and Chūbu Centrair International Airport. The lessons of Kansai Airport were also applied in the construction of Hong Kong International Airport.[16]

In 1991, the terminal construction commenced. To compensate for the sinking of the island, adjustable columns were designed to support the terminal building. These are extended by inserting thick metal plates at their bases. Government officials proposed reducing the length of the terminal to cut costs, but architect Renzo Piano insisted on keeping the terminal at its full planned length.[17] The airport opened in 1994.

On 17 January 1995, Japan was struck by the Kobe earthquake, whose epicenter was about 20 km (12 mi) away from KIX and killed 6,434 people on Japan's main island of Honshū. Due to its earthquake engineering, the airport emerged unscathed, mostly due to the use of sliding joints. Even the glass in the windows remained intact. In 1998, the airport survived a typhoon with wind speeds of up to 200 km/h (120 mph).

On 19 April 2001, the airport was one of ten structures given the "Civil Engineering Monument of the Millennium" award by the American Society of Civil Engineers.[18]

As of 2008, the total cost of Kansai Airport was $20 billion including land reclamation, two runways, terminals and facilities. Most additional costs were initially due to the island sinking, expected due to the soft soils of Osaka Bay. After construction the rate of sinking was considered so severe that the airport was widely criticized as a geotechnical engineering disaster. The sink rate fell from 50 cm (20 in) per year during 1994 to 7 cm (2.8 in) per year in 2008.[19]


A Finnair MD-11 and KLM Boeing 777-200ER at KIX. The terminal building is in the background
4th floor ticketing hall, illustrating the terminal's airfoil roof

Opened on 4 September 1994, the airport serves as a hub for several airlines such as All Nippon Airways, Japan Airlines, and Nippon Cargo Airlines. It is the international gateway for Japan's Kansai region, which contains the major cities of Kyoto, Kobe, and Osaka. Other Kansai domestic flights fly from the older but more conveniently located Osaka International Airport in Itami, or from the newer Kobe Airport.

The airport had been deeply in debt, losing $560 million in interest every year. Airlines had been kept away by high landing fees (about $7,500 for a Boeing 747), the second most expensive in the world after Narita's. In the early years of the airport's operation, excessive terminal rent and utility bills for on-site concessions also drove up operating costs: some estimates before opening held that a cup of coffee would have to cost US$10.[20] Osaka business owners pressed the government to take a greater burden of the construction cost to keep the airport attractive to passengers and airlines.[21]

On 17 February 2005, Chubu Centrair International Airport opened in Nagoya, just east of Osaka. The opening of the airport was expected to increase competition between Japan's international airports. Despite this, passenger totals were up 11% in 2005 over 2004, and international passengers increased to 3.06 million in 2006, up 10% over 2005. Adding to the competition was the opening of Kobe Airport, less than 25 km (16 mi) away, in 2006 and the lengthening of the runway at Tokushima Airport in Shikoku in 2007. The main rationale behind the expansions was to compete with Incheon International Airport and Hong Kong International Airport as a gateway to Asia, as Tokyo area airports were severely congested. Kansai saw an 5% year-on-year increase in international traffic in summer 2013, largely supported by low-cost carrier traffic to Taiwan and Southeast Asia overcoming a decrease in traffic to China and South Korea.[22]

The airport authority was allotted 4 billion yen in government support for fiscal year 2013, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport and Ministry of Finance have agreed to reduce this amount in stages through fiscal year 2015, although local governments in the Kansai region have pressed for continued subsidies.[23]

Kansai has been marketed as an alternative to Narita Airport for international travelers from the Greater Tokyo Area. By flying to Kansai from Haneda Airport and connecting to international flights there, travelers can save the additional time required to get to Narita: up to one and a half hours for many residents of Kanagawa Prefecture and southern Tokyo.


Second phase of Kansai International Airport under construction

The airport was at its limit during peak times, owing especially to freight flights, so a portion of Phase II expansion—the second runway—was made a priority.[24] Thus, in 2003, believing that the sinking problem was almost over, the airport operators started to construct a 4,000 m (13,000 ft) second runway and terminal.

The second runway opened on 2 August 2007, but with the originally planned terminal portion postponed. This lowered the project cost to JPY¥910 billion (approx. US$8 billion), saving ¥650 billion from the first estimate.[25] The additional runway development, which was opened in time for the IAAF world athletics championships in Osaka, has expanded the airport size to 10.5 square kilometres (2,600 acres). The second runway is used for landings and when there are incidents prohibiting take off use of runway A. The new runway allowed the airport to start 24-hour operations in September 2007.[26][27]

A new terminal building opened in late 2012.[28] There are additional plans for several new aprons, a third runway (06C/24C) with a length of 3,500 m (11,483 ft), a new cargo terminal and expanding the airport size to 13 km2 (5.0 sq mi). As of 2012, the Japanese government is postponing these plans for economic reasons.

Relationship with Itami Airport

Kansai Airport in 2006

Since July 2008, Osaka Prefecture governor Toru Hashimoto has been a vocal critic of Itami Airport, arguing that the Chuo Shinkansen maglev line will make much of its domestic role irrelevant, and that its domestic functions should be transferred to Kansai Airport in conjunction with upgraded high-speed access to Kansai from central Osaka.[29] In 2009, Hashimoto also publicly proposed moving the functions of Marine Corps Air Station Futenma to Kansai Airport as a possible solution for the political crisis surrounding the base.[30]

In May 2011, the Diet of Japan passed legislation to form a new Kansai International Airport Corporation using the state's existing equity stake in Kansai Airport and its property holdings at Itami Airport. The move was aimed at offsetting Kansai Airport's debt burden.[31]

The merger of the Itami and Kansai airport authorities was completed in July 2012. Shortly following the merger, Kansai Airport announced a 5% reduction in landing fees effective October 2012, with additional reductions during overnight hours when the airport is underutilized, and further discounts planned for the future, including subsidies for new airlines and routes. As of October 2012 these moves were intended to bring Kansai's fees closer to the level of Narita International Airport, where landing fees were around 20% lower than Kansai's, and to improve competitiveness with other Asian hubs such as Incheon International Airport in Korea.[32]

Since its formation, the new operating company has also made efforts toward international expansion, bidding for operating concessions at Yangon International Airport and Hanthawaddy International Airport in Myanmar.[33]

KIAC conducted a public tender to sell the operating rights for Kansai and Itami Airport in May 2015. Orix and Vinci SA were the sole bidder for the 45-year contract, at a price of around $18 billion.[34] The new operating company will be formed around the end of 2015 and will be 80% owned by Orix and Vinci, with the remaining 20% owned by Kansai-based enterprises such as Hankyu Hanshin Holdings and Panasonic.[35]


Kansai International Airport's roof
Terminal 1 Interior Escalator

Terminal 1

The main KIX passenger Terminal l is a single four-story building designed by Renzo Piano Building Workshop (Renzo Piano and Noriaki Okabe) and has a gross floor space of 296,043 square metres (3,186,580 sq ft). As of 2008, it is the longest airport terminal in the world, at a total length of 1.7 km (1.1 mi) from end to end. It has a sophisticated people mover system called the Wing Shuttle, which moves passengers from one end of the pier to the other.

The terminal's roof is shaped like an airfoil. This shape is used to promote air circulation through the building: giant air conditioning ducts blow air upwards at one side of the terminal, circulate the air across the curvature of the ceiling, and collect the air through intakes at the other side. Mobiles are suspended in the ticketing hall to take advantage of the flowing air.

The ticketing hall overlooks the international departures concourse, and the two are separated by a glass partition. During Kansai's early days, visitors were known to throw objects over the partition to friends in the corridor below. The partition was eventually modified to halt this practice.

Terminal 2

Terminal 2 departures lobby
Terminal 2 Restrict area shops

Terminal 2 is a low-cost carrier (LCC) terminal designed to attract more LCCs by providing lower landing fees than terminal 1. It is exclusively occupied by Peach. Other LCCs serving Kansai, such as Jetstar Airways, Jetstar Japan, and Cebu Pacific Air, use the main Terminal 1, but there are plans to build a third terminal to house other LCCs.[36]

Peach requested that Terminal 2 have a simplified design in order to minimize operating costs.[37] The terminal is a single-story building, thus eliminating the cost of elevators. Passageways to aircraft have no air conditioning.[38] The terminal also has no jet bridges, having one boarding gate for domestic departures and one boarding gate for international departures. In case of rain, passengers are lent umbrellas to use as they walk to the aircraft.[39]

Terminal 2 is not directly connected to Terminal 1 or to Kansai Airport Station. Free shuttle buses run between the two terminals, and between Terminal 2 and the railway and ferry stations. It is also possible to walk between the terminals through the KIX Sora Park, a four-hectare park located adjacent to Terminal 2.[40]

Terminal 3 (planned)

Kansai Airport plans to build a third terminal for use by low-cost carriers (excluding Peach, primarily Jetstar Airways, Jetstar Japan and other group companies. NKIAC plans to finalize the terminal plan during fiscal year 2014–15 and commence construction during fiscal year 2015–16.[41] The terminal is scheduled to open by March 2017 on a site adjacent to Terminal 2 and will have gates for both narrowbody and widebody aircraft with an expandable design.[42]

The initial plan called for completion in fiscal year 2015, but NKIAC announced in July 2013 that completion would be postponed by one year due to Jetstar Japan canceling plans to establish a second domestic base at KIX, as well as decreased traffic to and from the People's Republic of China due to recent issues in Sino-Japanese relations. However, NKIAC hoped that increased demand on flights to and from Southeast Asia would make up for these problems.[43]

Airlines and destinations


AirAsia X Kuala Lumpur–International 1 North
Air Busan Busan, Daegu (begins 23 December 2016)[44] 1 North
Air Canada Rouge Seasonal: Vancouver 1 North
Air China Beijing–Capital, Chengdu, Dalian, Hangzhou, Shanghai–Pudong 1 South
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle 1 South
Air India Delhi, Hong Kong, Mumbai 1 South
Air Macau Macau 1 North
Air New Zealand Seasonal: Auckland[45] 1 South
Aircalin Nouméa 1 South
All Nippon Airways Aomori, Beijing–Capital, Dalian, Fukuoka, Hakodate, Hangzhou, Hong Kong, Ishigaki, Naha, Qingdao, Sapporo–Chitose, Shanghai–Pudong, Tokyo–Haneda
Seasonal: Asahikawa, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta, Memanbetsu, Obihiro, Wakkanai
1 North
Asiana Airlines Seoul–Gimpo, Seoul–Incheon
Seasonal: Saipan
1 North
Beijing Capital Airlines Jinan,[46] Shenyang[47] 1 North
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong, Taipei–Taoyuan 1 North
Cebu Pacific Manila 1 North
China Airlines Kaohsiung, Tainan,[48] Taipei–Taoyuan 1 South
China Eastern Airlines Beijing–Capital, Nanjing, Nanning, Ningbo, Qingdao, Shanghai–Pudong, Wenzhou,[49] Yanji,[50] Yantai 1 South
China Southern Airlines Changchun, Changsha, Dalian, Guangzhou, Guilin,[51] Guiyang, Harbin, Sanya, Shanghai-Pudong,[52] Shenyang, Shenzhen,[53] Zhengzhou 1 South
Delta Air Lines Honolulu 1 North
Eastar Jet Busan, Seoul–Incheon 1 South
EgyptAir Charter: Cairo, Luxor[54] 1 South
Emirates Dubai–International 1 South
EVA Air Taipei–Taoyuan, Kaohsiung 1 North
Far Eastern Air Transport Taichung,[55] Taipei-Taoyuan[56] 1 North
Finnair Helsinki 1 North
Garuda Indonesia Denpasar/Bali, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta 1 North
Hainan Airlines
operated by Beijing Capital Airlines
Haikou, Hangzhou, Nanchang, Shenyang 1 South
Hawaiian Airlines Honolulu 1 North
Hong Kong Airlines Hong Kong 1 North
Hong Kong Express Airways Hong Kong 1 North
Japan Airlines Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Fukuoka, Honolulu, Los Angeles,[57] Naha, Sapporo–Chitose, Shanghai–Pudong, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Haneda 1 South
Japan Airlines
operated by Japan Transocean Air
Ishigaki, Naha, Tokyo–Haneda 1 South
Jeju Air Busan, Seoul–Gimpo, Seoul–Incheon 1 North
Jetstar Airways Cairns, Melbourne 1 North
Jetstar Asia Airways Manila, Singapore, Taipei–Taoyuan 1 North
Jetstar Japan Fukuoka, Hong Kong,[58] Kumamoto, Naha, Oita, Sapporo–Chitose, Taipei–Taoyuan,[59] Tokyo–Narita
Seasonal: Manila[60]
1 North
Jetstar Pacific Da Nang[61] 1 North
Jin Air Busan,[62] Seoul–Incheon 1 South
Juneyao Airlines Nanjing,[63] Shanghai–Pudong 1 South
KLM Amsterdam 1 North
Korean Air Busan, Guam, Jeju, Seoul–Gimpo, Seoul–Incheon 1 North
Lufthansa Frankfurt 1 North
Malaysia Airlines Kuala Lumpur–International 1 North
Myanmar Airways International Yangon 1 North
Okay Airways Tianjin 1 North
Peach Busan, Fukuoka, Hong Kong, Ishigaki, Kagoshima, Kaohsiung, Matsuyama, Miyazaki,[64] Nagasaki, Naha, Sapporo–Chitose, Sendai, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong,[65] Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Narita 2
Philippine Airlines Cebu, Manila, Taipei-Taoyuan[66] 1 South
Scoot Bangkok–Don Mueang, Kaohsiung, Singapore 1 North
Shandong Airlines Jinan, Qingdao,[67] Ürümqi[67] 1 North
Shanghai Airlines Shanghai–Pudong 1 North
Shenzhen Airlines Beijing–Capital,[68] Fuzhou, Nantong,[69] Shenzhen, Wuxi 1 South
Sichuan Airlines Chengdu 1 South
Singapore Airlines Singapore 1 South
Spring Airlines Changchun,[70] Chongqing, Fuzhou,[71] Huai'an,[72] Qingdao, Quanzhou,[73] Shanghai–Pudong, Shantou,[72] Tianjin, Wuhan, Xi'an,[73] Yangzhou,[71] Zhengzhou[73] 1 North
Spring Airlines Japan Tokyo-Narita[74] 1 North
StarFlyer Tokyo–Haneda 1 South
Thai AirAsia X Bangkok–Don Mueang 1 North
Thai Airways Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi 1 North
Tianjin Airlines Dalian,[75] Tianjin, Xi'an 1 South
Tigerair Taiwan Kaohsiung,[76] Taipei–Taoyuan 1 South
Turkish Airlines Istanbul–Atatürk (ends 31 January 2017)[77] 1 North
T'way Airlines Daegu, Guam,[78] Seoul–Incheon[79] 1 South
United Airlines Guam, San Francisco 1 North
Vanilla Air Taipei–Taoyuan 1 South
Vietnam Airlines Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City 1 South
XiamenAir Fuzhou, Hangzhou, Xiamen 1 South


Air China Cargo Beijing–Capital, Shanghai–Pudong
Air Hong Kong Hong Kong
ANA & JP Express Seoul–Incheon
ANA Cargo Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Dalian, Naha, Qingdao, Saga, Shanghai–Pudong, Tokyo–Haneda, Tokyo–Narita, Xiamen
Asiana Cargo Seoul–Incheon
Cathay Pacific Cargo Hong Kong, Seoul–Incheon
China Airlines Cargo Anchorage, Los Angeles, Taipei–Taoyuan
China Cargo Airlines Shanghai–Pudong, Xiamen
China Postal Airlines Shanghai–Pudong
China Southern Cargo[80] Shanghai–Pudong
Cathay Pacific Cargo Hong Kong
EVA Air Cargo Taipei–Taoyuan
FedEx Express Anchorage, Beijing–Capital, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Indianapolis, Memphis, Oakland, Singapore, Shanghai–Pudong, Taipei–Taoyuan, Tokyo–Narita
Garuda Indonesia Cargo Denpasar/Bali, Jakarta–Soekarno–Hatta
Hong Kong Airlines Cargo Hong Kong
Korean Air Cargo Seoul–Incheon
Lufthansa Cargo Frankfurt, Krasnoyarsk
Nippon Cargo Airlines Bangkok–Suvarnabhumi, Beijing–Capital, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Seoul–Incheon, Shanghai–Pudong, Singapore, Tokyo–Narita
Polar Air Cargo Chicago–O'Hare, Shanghai–Pudong
Singapore Airlines Cargo Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Singapore
UPS Airlines Anchorage, Shanghai–Pudong, Shenzhen
Yakutia Airlines Shanghai–Pudong

Ground transportation


Haruka, JR West's Kansai Airport Limited Express
rapi:t, Nankai Railway's limited express train

Kansai International Airport is connected only by the Sky Gate Bridge R, a road/railroad bridge to Rinku Town and the mainland. The lower railroad level of the bridge is used by two railroad operators: JR West and Nankai Electric Railway.

JR West operates the Haruka limited express train services for Kansai Airport Station from Tennōji, Shin-Ōsaka, and Kyoto Station. JR West also offers "Kansai Airport Rapid" services for Kansai Airport Station from Ōsaka, Kyōbashi Station, and several stations on the way. Various connections, such as buses, subways, trams, and other railroads, are available at each station.

Nankai operates the rapi:t, a limited express train service to Namba Station on the southern edge of downtown Osaka. Osaka Municipal Subway connections are available at Namba and Tengachaya Station.


Kansai Airport Transportation Enterprise[81] and other bus operators offer scheduled express bus services, called "Airport Limousines", for Kansai International Airport.


Two six story parking structures, called P1 and P2, are located above a railroad terminal station, while the other two level parking facilities, called P3 and P4, are situated next to "Aeroplaza", a hotel complex.

The airport is only accessible from the Sky Gate Bridge R, a part of Kansai Airport Expressway. The expressway immediately connects to Hanshin Expressways Route 5, "Wangan Route", and Hanwa Expressway.

Ferry service

In July 2007, high-speed ferry service (run by Kaijo Access Co.) began operating between Kobe Airport and KIX. The journey takes about thirty minutes.

Other facilities

Kensetsu-to, the headquarters of Peach Aviation and the Kansai International Airport Land Development Co., Ltd.
Sky Gate Bridge to the mainland


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Further reading

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