University of Michigan Health System

University of Michigan Health System
University of Michigan Health System Logo
Motto Excellence and Leadership in Patient Care, Research and Education
Type Public
Established 1850 (U-M Medical School)
1869 (University Hospital)
1997 (U-M Health System)
Endowment $2.1 billion (2015)[1]
Academic staff
Administrative staff
Location Ann Arbor, Michigan, USA
Campus 128 acres (0.58 km²)
Nickname UMHS, U-M Health System

The University of Michigan Health System (UMHS) is the wholly owned academic medical center of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor. UMHS includes the U-M Medical School, with its Faculty Group Practice and many research laboratories; the U-M Hospitals and Health Centers, which includes University Hospital, C.S. Mott Children's Hospital, Von Voigtlander Women's Hospital, 120 outpatient clinics and approximately 40 health centers; the clinical programs of the U-M School of Nursing; and the activities of the Michigan Health Corporation, through which UMHS partners with other medical centers and hospitals to provide specialized care throughout Michigan.

In June 2014, the University of Michigan Hospitals & Health Centers projected that it will end its 2014 fiscal year with an operating margin of 0.7 percent ($17 million) on revenues of $2.52 billion. In 2015, the Hospitals and Health Centers will aim to achieve an operating margin of 3 percent on revenues of about $2.66 billion. As a not-for-profit entity, UMHS uses positive operating margins to fund continued advances in patient care, education, research, and the facilities needed to support these functions.[2]


UMHS East Campus

Hospital and outpatient care

UMHS provides a broad range of care, with specialized centers for Alzheimer's disease, cancer, cardiovascular care, depression, diabetes, epilepsy, geriatrics, organ transplant, pediatrics, trauma/burn, vision, and women’s health research and care. Its hospitals have 1,000 licensed beds. As a tertiary care center, UMHS has 179 intensive care unit (ICU) beds, giving it one of the highest number of ICU beds in the country.

UMHS is also a high-volume surgical center with a total of 66 operating rooms. The construction of the $523 million Children and Women's Hospital and the $132 million Eye Center expansion added 18 operating rooms to the Health System for a total of 82 operating rooms. Outpatient care is provided at the main medical campus in Ann Arbor and at numerous satellite locations.[3]

More than 1.8 million outpatient and emergency visits, 45,000 hospital stays, 49,000 surgeries and 4,000 births take place each year at facilities operated by the Hospitals and Health Centers unit of UMHS, including the University Hospital, C.S. Mott Children’s Hospital, Women’s Hospital and the A. Alfred Taubman Health Care Center.[4]

The University of Michigan Hospitals & Health Centers unit has nearly 26,000 employees, including 4,600 nurses.[3] The Michigan Visiting Nurses, a wholly owned part of the Michigan Health Corporation, provides a broad range of home care services in a 13-county area of southeastern Michigan. These include home nursing, specialty treatments, therapy and palliative care. It also provides public and employer-based immunization services.

From 1986 to 2006, the Health System included M-CARE, a managed care organization that provided health plans to University faculty, staff, retirees and dependents, and to employees of companies throughout Michigan. In late 2006, due to rapidly changing conditions in the health plan climate and the need for the Health System to focus on its core missions of patient care, research and education, it sold M-CARE to Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan and its Blue Care Network subsidiary.

Survival Flight

In 1983, the University of Michigan Health System established a medical flight service called Survival Flight, the first of its type in the state. The service operates a total of four aircraft, three American Eurocopter EC155 B1 helicopters and one Cessna Citation Encore fixed wing twin engine jet.[5] These Eurocopters began service replaced Bell 430 which were used from 1998 until 2012. For its first ten-years, the service flew American Eurocopter AS355 Twinstar craft. It replaced them in 1993 with Bell 230 craft that remained in service for five years.

The three helicopters and one jet make 1000 to 1500 trips annually and have a range of over 400 mi (640 km) from UMHS. The flights transport 800 to 1000 patients per year with the remainder of the trips for the transport of human organs. The jet also transported victims of the 2010 Haiti earthquake for treatment in the United States.[6][7]

Survival Flight has an excellent safety record and intense maintenance program. The aero-medical aviation sector has a high accident rate per hour flown due to their requirement to operate in almost all types of weather conditions and due to urgent transportation needs. Survival Flight has only suffered one crew and equipment loss. On June 4, 2007, a Cessna 550 Citation II provided by Marlin Air, Inc. plunged into lake Michigan after experience a "trim runaway" problem.[8] In September 2008, a legal settlement was reached by University of Michigan and Marlin Air, Inc. after a lawsuit was filed because the university terminated its contract for air medical transportation services. Results of the NTSB investigation placed blame on the deficiencies and inadequate checkrides instituted by the chief pilot of Marlin Air, Inc., cited an "ill-prepared pilot in the first officer's seat.", and also placed blame on the FAA's inability to detect such training and operational deficiencies. In 2009, Survival Flight once again began to operate fixed-wing service in a new Cessna Citation Encore out of KPTK airport in Waterford Township, Michigan and in 2013 moved fixed-wing operations to KOZW airport in Howell, Michigan. The new Cessna Citation Encore's extended operability allows Survival Flight to provide aeromedical evacuation "as far away as the Caribbean and Mexico."

Medical school

University of Michigan Medical Center

All 1,650 physicians who are part of the U-M Medical School Faculty Group Practice hold faculty positions. Patients at many hospitals and clinics in southeastern Michigan also receive U-M physicians' care through affiliations with other health institutions, including the VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System.

A total of 683 medical students, 1,010 interns and residents, 503 graduate students and 482 postdoctoral research fellows are currently in training at the Medical School, and more than 15,000 practicing physicians and health professionals receive continuing medical education through U-M courses each year. In addition to the M.D. program and post-M.D. residency and fellowship Graduate Medical Education programs, the U-M Medical School offers master's degree, Ph.D. and post-Ph.D. training in the basic sciences through the Program in Biomedical Sciences (PIBS) and the Horace H. Rackham School of Graduate Studies.

The VA Ann Arbor Healthcare System is affiliated with the U-M Medical School. All physicians who practice at VA hospital and clinics have U-M faculty appointments. Medical students receive training at the VA as part of their internal medicine rotation, but can also receive training there in other specialties as part of other rotations and elective rotations.

Affiliations with Other Organizations

To address the changing environment under health care reform, the University of Michigan Health System has developed affiliations with other regional health systems.

Development and expansion

In 2005, the university unveiled a development master-plan for the medical campus and satellite campuses that is expected to add 3,000,000 sq ft (280,000 m2) to the existing 5,600,000 sq ft (520,000 m2).[13]

W.K. Kellogg Eye Center and Brehm Center for Diabetes Research

The W.K. Kellogg Eye Center' is the home of the University of Michigan Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, part of the Medical School and U-M Health System. The Kellogg Eye Center has 64 clinical faculty and 21 research faculty (including nine endowed professorships), 21 residents, 17 research fellows, and 11 clinical fellows. The Department of Ophthalmology was established in 1872 and has served patients at least as early as 1904, when there were 1,400 patient visits to the Eye & Ear Ward. The Kellogg Eye Center opened in 1985; in that year, there were 36,852 visits to the center. In 2011, there were 140,104 patient visits and over 5,783 surgical procedures performed. The Kellogg Eye Center has community clinics in Ann Arbor, Brighton, Canton, Livonia, Milford, West Bloomfield, and Ypsilanti. Eye Center residents also staff the VA Ophthalmology Clinic at the Veterans Affairs Hospital in Ann Arbor.[14]

The expanded W.K. Kellogg Eye Center and new Brehm Center for Diabetes Research opened in March 2010. The $132 million expansion project built the Brehm Tower, an eight-story 230,000 sq ft (21,000 m2) research and clinical building expands space for the Kellogg Eye Center by 50 percent. The Eye Center is located on the tower's six lower floors, and the Brehm Center is housed on the upper two floors, with its Diabetes mellitus type 1 research laboratories.[15][16] (Diabetes can cause vision loss).[17] The tower includes nine eye clinics, six operating rooms, and new refractive surgery and cosmetic surgery suites, as well as facilities for support services such as genetic counseling, ophthalmic photography, diagnostic visual electrophysiological testing,[18] and ocular prosthetics. The tower also houses a library, optical shop, and café. The Eye Center has 20 research laboratories in the new building and in the adjoining research tower.[14] Parts of the former three-building facility, including a converted nursing home and geriatric center, may be demolished and turned into a parking lot. In 2010, U-M reported that it expected to add around 100 jobs over the next five to seven years for the new facility.

The tower is named after Virginia philanthropists Delores S. (Dee) and William K. Brehm, who donated $44 million to the University in November 2004, of which around $30 million was dedicated for the Brehm Tower project.[17]

C. S. Mott Children's and Von Voigtlander Women's Hospital

The new facility for the C. S. Mott Children's and Von Voigtlander Women's Hospital, opened in December 2011 following the completion of a $754 million, five-year construction project. It is one of the largest children's hospitals in the United States.[19][20] The hospital is 1,100,000 sq ft (100,000 m2) and consists of a 12-story inpatient wing and a nine-story outpatient wing. There are 348 beds, including 50 maternity rooms and 46 neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) rooms. The expansion increases the number of beds at the hospital by 75 percent and makes the hospital the largest of Michigan's three children's hospitals. Every inpatient room is private, in contrast to the old facility, which had mostly double occupancy rooms.[21] The new hospital has 16 operating rooms and two interventional radiology rooms.[22][23] The first Women's Hospital opened in 1950, while the original C.S. Mott Children's Hospital opened in 1969 and traces its origin to a small ward for sick children that began in 1903.[24]

The new hospital was the most expensive building project in University of Michigan history and one of the most expensive construction projects in state history. Of the $754 million cost, the university financed $588 million through tax-exempt bonds, $91 million through cash reserves from hospital operations, and $75 million through fundraising.[21][25]

The C. S. Mott Children's and Von Voigtlander Women's Hospital employs about 4,000 people and is gradually hiring 500 more now that the hospital expansion is complete.[26]

Major projects in development

Finally, UMHS has four major projects that are currently in development:


UMHS is considered one of the nation’s leading medical and research institutions and has received many awards and honors recognizing its advanced medical care, leading-edge biomedical research and broad range of educational activities.[27]

For 17 consecutive years through 2011, UMHS has been named to the "Honor Roll of America's Best Hospitals" compiled by U.S. News and World Report magazine.[28] In 2011, U.S. News & World Report ranked UMHS 14th in its honor roll and recognized it in 16 areas of specialized care.[29] The University of Michigan Health System ranks among the top hospitals, most notably in Ear, Nose, and Throat; Neurology and Neurosurgery; Orthopaedic Surgery; Heart and Heart Surgery; Cancer; Ophthalmology; and Urology.

The Medical School’s 2,492 faculty provide advanced medical and surgical care, and perform scientific research, while training young doctors and biomedical scientists. As of 2009, 163 chairs are endowed in the medical school. The Medical School is ranked 8th in the nation by U.S. News & World Report[30] and has the nation's 10th highest total of research funding from the National Institutes of Health, with NIH funding of $519 million in 2012 and a total annual research budget of more than $557 million.[31]

Main medical campus

The current medical campus complex includes facilities for the UM Medical School, which was founded in 1848 as the Department of Medicine and opened to students in 1850. The medical campus complex also includes the Hospitals and Health Centers, which trace their history back to the nation's first university owned and operated hospital which opened in 1869.

Today, the complex includes:

The hospital is home to several specialty centers:

The building contains six levels, including two partial levels, of research laboratories and offices, and features a basement, a two-levelvivarium space that includes an imaging core, surgery, behavioral testing suite, aquatics suite, and cage/rack washing facilities. It houses 144 faculty offices; 1,600 sq ft (150 m2) of divisible seminar room and break-out area; 16,000 sq ft (1,500 m2) of linear equipment space; alcoves for tissue culture, fume hoods, general bench space and lab entries.[34] The 240 lab modules in the building are grouped into six "neighborhoods" for geriatrics and biogerontology; immunology; cardiovascular science; cellular and molecular therapeutics; organogenesis; and neuroscience). The grouping of lab modules by scientific themes is a departure from traditional groupings by departrment.[35] The facility is also home of the internationally renowned Center for Organogenesis[37] and U-M Program for Neurology Research and Discovery (P-FUND).[38]

Construction planning by the New York City-based architectural firm of Polshek Partnership Architects.[39] began in 2001, with final design approval in 2002 and groundbreaking in April 2003.[34][35] The BSRB was named in honor of A. Alfred Taubman, the university's largest individual donor.[40]

Within the building is the 300-seat 'Kahn Auditorium', named for philanthropists D. Dan and Betty Kahn of Bloomfield Hills, who gave $6 million to the university for cardiovascular research. The auditorium is sometimes called "The Pringle" because of its resemblance to the brand of potato chips.[41]

The LSI consists of the laboratories of faculty members from a wide range of life science disciplines including biology, chemistry, pharmacology, bioinformatics, medicine, physiology, genetics and biochemistry. LSI faculty work in silico as well as with macromolecules, bacteria, yeast, worms, flies, mice, and humans. Every LSI faculty member has a joint appointments with a U-M schools or college. Appointments span 16 different departments and include the Medical School, College of Pharmacy, and College of Literature, Science, and the Arts.

LSI consists of three centers: The Center for Chemical Genomics (chemical genetics), Center for Stem Cell Biology (stem cell research), and Center for Structural Biology (structural biology). LSI also have several scientific cores: The DNA Sequencing Core (DNA sequencing), the Flow Cytometry Core (flow cytometry), the Functional Genomic Core (functional genomics), the Metabolic Phenotyping Core, the Vivarium (36,000 sq ft (3,300 m2) for small animals and fish), the NMR Suite (nuclear magnetic resonance), and the Cryo-Electron Microscopy Laboratory (cryo-electron microscopy).[43] In 2007, the Life Sciences Institute entered into a research partnership with Weizmann Institute of Science in Israel.[44]

The LSI was established in 2000 and the current six-story structure was completed in 2003 at cost of $100 million. It is part of a three-building facility that houses 230,000 sq ft (21,000 m2) of wet bench / dry lab / core facility research space and can accommodate 25-30 faculty-led research teams. The other buildings include the 99,000 sq ft (9,200 m2) Palmer Commons, housing a conference/meeting center and Bioinformatics Program, and the 140,000 sq ft (13,000 m2) Undergraduate Science Building containing classrooms and conference facilities.

In 2007, it ranked as the number-five Public Health School in the United States by US News and has ranked first in Health Management every year since 1993. In fall 2006, the school completed construction on its seven-story Crossroads and Research Tower. The 125,000 sq ft (11,600 m2) building houses 17 conference rooms and 133 laboratory benches. The facility also houses the U-M Autism and Communication Disorders Center, a leading center in the clinical treatment of autism as well as autism genetics research.

North Campus Research Complex

In 2009, the University of Michigan acquired the 174-acre (0.70 km2) former Pfizer facility with 28-buildings and created the North Campus Research Complex. The complex was adjacent to the North Campus and occupied land that the University sold to pharmaceutical manufacturer Parke-Davis in 1957. In 1970, Warner-Lambert acquired Parke-Davis and in 2000, it was purchased by Pfizer.[46]

Ann Arbor Satellite facilities

Other satellite facilities

In addition to the above, UMHS operates outpatient surgery and health centers in other areas of Ann Arbor, as well as the neighboring communities of Brighton, Canton, Chelsea, Dexter, Howell, Livonia, Northville, Saline and Ypsilanti. Among the Ann Arbor facilities are an Orthotics & Prosthetics Center, a Spine Program facility, and other facilities in the community. U-M emergency medicine physicians staff the emergency rooms at several local hospitals, and U-M physicians provide specialized services at other hospitals for patients with specific cardiovascular issues, cancer and other diseases.[51]

Institutional milestones

Notable alumni and faculty


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