List of Canna cultivars

This list of Canna cultivars is a gallery of named cultivars of plants in the genus Canna that are representative of the various Canna cultivar groups (i.e., groups of very similar cultivars[1]).

Names of cultivars conform to the rules of the International Society for Horticultural Science (ISHS) Commission for Nomenclature and Cultivar Registration, as laid down in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. They are registered with an International Cultivar Registration Authority (ICRA), which for the Canna genus is the Royal General Bulbgrowers' Association of the Netherlands (KAVB).[1]

Foliage group

Cultivars, F1 and F2 hybrids, normally with small species-like flowers, but grown principally for their foliage.[2][3][4] This group has occasionally been referred to as the Année Group, after the originator, Théodore Année, the world's first Canna hybridizer. However, the use of an accented character in the name creates problems, both in pronunciation and keyboard entry, that it was felt that as they were grown primarily for foliage, then "Foliage Group" was the better name choice.[2]

Crozy group

A cultivar group where the flower spikes are arranged close together on the stalk and have narrow to medium petals. There is always space between the staminodes when arranged formally, and the labellum (lip) is smaller than the staminodes, and is often twisted or curled.[2][3][4][5]

The pioneer of this group was Monsieur Crozy of Lyons, France, who started breeding cannas as early as 1862, from stock originally developed by Théodore Année.[3][4][6]

They are sometimes referred to as gladiolus flowering cannas, but describing flowers as similar to another genus is not encouraged.[7] In the past, they were called the Canna × generalis L.H. Bailey garden species, but the use of nothospecies for complex garden hybrids have been replaced by Cultivar Groups in the International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants.[1]

Italian group

A cultivar group with large, fragile staminodes. Flowers are arranged somewhat loosely, with wide petals, so wide that there is no space between them, when arranged formally. The labellum (lip) is larger, or at least as large, as the staminodes, unlike the other groups where it is smaller and sometimes curled. The stamen is also much wider than that in the other cultivar groups.[2][3][4][5]

Also, used to be called the orchid flowering cannas, or C. × orchiodes L.H. Bailey garden species,[3][4][7] although such "pretend" species are now deprecated in favour of Cultivar Groups.[1] In any event, it is difficult to see the similarity between this group and orchids.[7]

Most of this group obtained its larger sized flowers from the introduction of Canna flaccida in the early 1890s by Dr Sprenger in Naples, Italy followed shortly afterwards by Luther Burbank in California, USA, with the same cross.[3][4]

Australian group

The result of a crossing of a Foliage Group seed parent with an Italian Group pollen parent (C. 'Red Stripe' x C. 'Bengal Tiger'), which resulted in the very large leaves of the Foliage Group allied with large flowers.[8]

Premier group

This grouping contains cultivars that have a large, circular shape, without gaps between the staminodes when ordered. These are derived from triploids and crosses with the Italian Group cultivars.[2][3][4][9]

Variegated group

Cultivars with variegated foliage, regardless of what other Group they may belong to.[2][3][4][7]

Conservatory group

The growing conditions in a conservatory are quite specialised and do not suit many cultivars, this group have been selected for thriving in this environment, required features being plant vigor, early flowering, foliar appearance, self-cleaning ability and good propagation qualities. The originator of this group was Robert Armstrong (geneticist) while he was working at Longwood Gardens in the USA in 1967.[10]

Aquatic group

Cultivars that thrive as marginal water plants. Characteristically, they will have lance-shaped foliage and long, thin rhizomes.[2][3][4][7][10]

Miniature group

Cultivars growing under 0.5m (19") high, the flowers should be in scale to the rest of the plant.[2][4]

Agriculture group

Cultivars grown selectively for agricultural usage, normally for their very large rhizomes and a high starch yield. See Canna Agriculture Group for more details.[2][3][11][12]

Musaefolia Group

The Musaefolia Group, having large leaves and being either tall or giant in size consists of cultivars whose leaves resemble those of banana plants (genus Musa). Until this group was designated, the cultivars were considered to be members of the Foliage Group.

See also


  1. 1 2 3 4 Brickell, Christopher D. (January 2004). International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (7th ed.). Lubrecht & Cramer Ltd. ISBN 90-6605-527-8.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Dalebö, Malcolm (April 24, 2007). "Canna cultivar groups". Canna News. Retrieved 2011-05-27.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Khoshoo, T.N.; Guha, I. (1976). "Origin and Evolution of Cultivated Cannas". New Dehli: Vikas Publishing House.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Percy-Lancaster, Sydney (1927). An Amateur in an Indian Garden.
  5. 1 2 Dalebö, Malcolm. "Comparison of Crozy and Italian Groups". Canna News. Retrieved 2011-05-27.
  6. Chaté, E. (1867). Le Canna, son histoire, sa culture (in French). Librairie Centrale d'Agriculture et de Jardinage.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 Cooke, Ian (September 1, 2001). The Gardener's Guide to Growing Canna. Timber Press. ISBN 978-0-88192-513-5.
  8. Dalebö, Malcolm (October 6, 2008). "Australian Group". Canna News. Retrieved 2011-05-27.
  9. Dalebö, Malcolm (June 29, 2007). "Premier Group". Canna News. Retrieved 2011-05-27.
  10. 1 2 Armstrong], Robert. "Plant Introductions".
  11. Tanaka, N (2001). "Taxonomic revision of the family Cannaceae in the New World and Asia". Makinoa. 2nd (1): 34–43.
  12. Yang Fang; Wang PingHua; Xie ShiQing; Zhang WeiGuang; Fang DeHua (2004). "Technique of scarifying and fermenting process of Canna starch". 17 (2). Southwest China Journal of Agricultural Sciences: 231–234.

External links

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