This article is about the municipality in India. For its namesake district, see Vadodara district.
"Baroda" redirects here. For other uses, see Baroda (disambiguation).
Metropolitan, Cosmopolitan City

Nyay Mandir in the heart of Vadodara, Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda and The Lakshmi Vilas Palace
Nickname(s): Sayaji Nagari (City of Sayajirao Gaekwad), Sanskari Nagari (Cultural City)

Location of Vadodara in Gujarat

Coordinates: 22°18′N 73°12′E / 22.300°N 73.200°E / 22.300; 73.200Coordinates: 22°18′N 73°12′E / 22.300°N 73.200°E / 22.300; 73.200
Country India India
State Gujarat
District Vadodara District
Zone 4[1]
Ward 28[1][2]
Vadodara Municipal Corporation Established 1950
  Mayor Bharat Dangar
  Municipal Commissioner DR Vinod Rao
  Total 225 km2 (87 sq mi)
Area rank 18
Elevation 129 m (423 ft)
Population (2011)[3]
  Total 2,065,771[4]
  Rank 20th (3rd in Gujarat State)
Demonym(s) Barodian
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 390 0XX
Telephone code (91)265
ISO 3166 code ISO 3166-2:IN
Vehicle registration GJ-06 (Urban)/GJ-29 (Rural)
Largest city Ahmedabad
Nearest city Bharuch, Anand
Literacy Rate 94.5%
Legislature type Municipal Corporation
Legislature Strength 84[1]
Lok Sabha constituency 1[5]
Vidhan Sabha constituency 13[6]
Climate Tropical savanna (Köppen: Aw)
Planning agency 1 (VUDA)
Distance from Gandhinagar 126 kilometres (78 mi) NE (Rail & Air)
Distance from Mumbai 395 kilometres (245 mi) S (Rail & Air)
Distance from Ahmedabad 100 kilometres (62 mi) NW (Road)

Vadodara (IPA: /ʋə'ɽod̪əɾa/), which used to be known as Baroda, the Cultural Capital of Gujarat, is the third largest[7] city in the Western Indian State of Gujarat, after Ahmedabad and Surat. It is the administrative headquarters of Vadodara District and is located on the banks of the Vishwamitri river, southeast of Ahmedabad, 139 kilometres (86 mi) from the state capital Gandhinagar. The railway line and NH 8 that connect Delhi and Mumbai pass through Vadodara.

As of 2011 Vadodara had a population of almost 2.2 million+ people.[8] The city is known for the Lakshmi Vilas Palace, the residence of Baroda State's Maratha royal family, the Gaekwads. It is also the home of the Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda (Vadodara), the largest university in Gujarat. An important industrial, cultural and educational hub of western India, the city houses several institutions of national and regional importance while its major industries include petrochemicals, engineering, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, plastics, IT and foreign exchange services amongst others.


The first recorded history of the city is that of the early trader settlers who settled in the region in 812 AD. The province was mainly Hindu-dominated with Hindu kings ruling until 1297. The Gupta Empire was the first power in the region in the early years of the Christian Era. After fierce battles, the region was taken over by the Chalukya Dynasty. Finally, the kingdom was annexed by the Solanki dynasty. By this time Muslim rule had spread across India, and the reins of power were then snatched by the Delhi Sultans. The city was ruled for a long time by these Sultans, until they were overthrown by the Mughals.


The city used to be called Chandanavati after its ruler Raja Chandan of the Dor tribe of Rajputs, who wrested it from the Jains. The capital was also known as Virakshetra or Viravati (Land of Warriors). Later on it was known as Vadpatraka or Vadodará, which according to tradition is a corrupt form of the Sanskrit word vatodar meaning in the belly of the Banyan tree. It is now almost impossible to ascertain when the various changes in the name were made; but early English travellers and merchants mention the town as Brodera,[9] and it is from this that the name Baroda is derived. In 1974, the official name of the city was changed to Vadodara.

In 1907, a small village and township[10] in Michigan, United States, were named after Baroda.

Old Ankotakka

It is believed that early man lived on the banks of the Mahi River, which formed the flood plain during that age.[11] The movements of these hunter-gatherers, living on the banks of the river, grubbing the roots and killing animals with crude stone tools made out of the cobbles and pebbles available on the river bank, were necessarily controlled by the availability of convenient raw materials for their tools. There is evidence of the existence of early man in the Mahi River valley at a number of sites within 10 to 20 kilometres (6.2 to 12.4 mi) to the north-east of Vadodara. However, no evidence of the existence of these people is found in and around present day Vadodara. This may be because of the absence of gravels and cobbles on the banks of the Vishwamitri rivulet.

Recent history

Main article: Baroda State

Baroda State was a former Indian State in Western India(Asia). Vadodara's more recent history began when the Maratha general Pilaji Gaekwad conquered Songadh from the Mughals in 1726.[12] Before the Gaekwads captured Baroda, it was ruled by the Babi Nawabs, who were the officers of the Mughal rulers. Most notably, from 1705–1716, Sardar Senapati Khanderao Dabhade led the Maratha Empire forces in Baroda. Except for a short period, Baroda continued to be in the reign of the Gaekwads from 1734 to 1948. Initially detailed to collect revenue on behalf of the Peshwa in Gujarat, Pilaji Gaekwad remained there to carve out a kingdom for himself. Damajirao, son and successor of Pilaji Gaekwad, defeated the Mughal armies and conquered Baroda in 1734.[12] His successors consolidated their power over large tracts of Gujarat, becoming easily the most powerful rulers in the region. After the Maratha defeat in the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761,[12] control of the empire by the Peshwas weakened as it became a loose confederacy, and the Gaekwad Maharajas ruled the kingdom until it acceded to Independent Republic of India in 1949. In 1802,[12] the British intervened to defend a Maharaja that had recently inherited the throne from rival claimants, and Vadodara concluded a subsidiary alliance with the British that recognised the Kingdom as a Princely state and allowed the Maharajas of Baroda internal political sovereignty in return for recognising British 'Paramountcy', a form of suzerainty in which the control of the state's foreign affairs was completely surrendered.

The golden period in the Maratha rule of Vadodara started with the accession of Maharaja Sayajirao III in 1875.[12]


Chimnabai I was knowledgeable in Bharatanatyam and Carnatic music, and brought a troupe with her comprising two dancers, two nattuvanars (leaders of Bharatanatyam concerts) and two teachers (Khandwani 2002). Others followed later, including Nattuvanar Appaswamy and his dancer wife Kantimati, who had studied with Kannusamy and Vadively, two members of the Tanjore Quartet. After the death of Appaswamy in 1939, Kantimati and their son,Guru Shri Kubernath Tanjorkar,left Baroda to teach in Lucknow, and then worked in the film industry in South India until Sayajirao's successor, Pratapsinhrao Gaekwad recalled the family to Baroda in 1949 to teach in the Music Department in the Kalavan Palace, later absorbed into the Maharaja Sayajirao University (Gaston 1996: 158–160).Later Guruvarya Shri Kubernath Tanjorkar established his own Institute namely Tanjore Dance Music & Art Research Centre at Baroda with his Son Guru Shri Ramesh Tanjorkar and Guru Smt.Leela R. Tanjorkar and their family. This established a tradition of Bharatanatyam dancers and teachers, who were members of a family considered an offshoot of the Tanjore Quartet bani (stylistic schools; Gaston 1996: 159), already established in Gujarat by the time Mrinalini set up her own academy. .


Vadodara is located at 22°18′N 73°11′E / 22.30°N 73.19°E / 22.30; 73.19 in western India at an elevation of 39 metres (128 ft). It is the 18th largest city in India with an area of 235 square kilometres (91 sq mi) and a population of 2.1 million according to the 2010–11 census. The city sits on the banks of the Vishwamitri River, in central Gujarat. The Vishwamitri frequently dries up in the summer, leaving only a small stream of water. The city is located on the fertile plain between the Mahi and Narmada Rivers. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the cosmopolis falls under seismic zone-III, in a scale of I to V (in order of increasing proneness to earthquakes).[13]


Vadodara features a tropical savanna climate (Aw) under Köppen's Climate classification. There are three main seasons: Summer, Monsoon and Winter. Aside from the monsoon season, the climate is dry. The weather is hot through the months of March to July – the average summer maximum is 40 °C (104 °F), and the average minimum is 23 °C (73 °F). From November to February, the average maximum temperature is 30 °C (86 °F), the average minimum is 15 °C (59 °F), and the climate is extremely dry. Cold northerly winds are responsible for a mild chill in January. The southwest monsoon brings a humid climate from mid-June to mid-September. The average rainfall is 93 cm (37 in), but infrequent heavy torrential rains cause the river to flood[14] like the 2005 Gujarat flood or the 2008 Indian floods which were catastrophic.[15]

The highest record temperature was 46.7 °C (116.1 °F) on 11 May 1960 crossed with 48.0 °C (118.4 °F) on 19 May 2016,[16] while the lowest record temperature was −1.1 °C (30.0 °F) on 15 January 1935.[17]

Climate data for Vadodara
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.2
Average high °C (°F) 29.5
Daily mean °C (°F) 21.0
Average low °C (°F) 12.5
Record low °C (°F) −1.1
Average precipitation mm (inches) 2.2
Average rainy days 0 0 0 0 0 9 14 11 7 3 1 0 49
Average relative humidity (%) 45 43 35 33 49 67 80 75 73 62 58 54 56
Source #1: India Meteorological Department (1952–2000)[18]
Source #2: Weatherbase (Avg. rainy days)


In Vadodara various large-scale industries such as Indian Oil Corporation(IOCL), Gujarat State Fertilizers & Chemicals (GSFC), Indian Petrochemicals Corporation Limited (IPCL, now owned by Reliance Industries Limited) and Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals Limited (GACL) have come up in the vicinity of Gujarat Refinery and all of them are dependent on it for their fuel and feedstock. Other large-scale public sector units are Heavy Water Project, Gujarat Industries Power Company Limited (GIPCL), Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) & Gas Authority of India Limited (GAIL). In addition to these public sector enterprises, a number of other large-scale enterprises have come up in the private sector such as Bombardier Transportation,[19] a Canadian company manufacturing the Delhi Metro from its site in Savli along with other manufacturing companies such as Alstom, Areva, Mahindra, Apollo, Thermax, Siemens etc. Vadodara is also taking big leaps in Service Industry along with the aforementioned manufacturing companies. L&T has established "Knowledge City" at Waghodia. Recently MasterCard opened its tech hub at the city. [20]

With Vadodara accounting for over 35 per cent of India's power transmission and distribution (T&D) equipment manufacturers and home to an estimated 800 ancillaries supporting the big players in Power Sector equipment manufacturing and engineering industry, Vadodara is the Power Equipment Manufacturing Hub of India.[21]

In line with the 'Knowledge City'[22] vision of the Confederation of Indian Industry, Vadodara is gradually becoming a hub in Gujarat for IT and other development projects. It is also the headquarters for information security company Indusface.[23]

Vadodara is also home to the Vadodara Stock Exchange (VSE).

Civic administration

Vadodara City Officials
Mayor Bharat Dangar
Municipal Commissioner DR. Vinod Rao
'Police Commissioner Manoj Shashidhar

Vadodara is administered by the Vadodara Mahanagar Seva Sadan (VMSS). Some of the regions surrounding the city are administered by the Vadodara Urban Development Authority (VUDA). The VMSS was established in July 1950 under the Bombay Provincial Corporation Act, 1949. For administrative purposes, the city is divided into four zones and 26 wards.

The two main institutions involved in planning and development in Vadodara are VMSS and the VUDA. The jurisdiction of both these agencies is demarcated clearly not only physically but also functionally. The governing acts for both the institutions differ. The principal responsibility of VUDA is to ensure a holistic development of the Vadodara agglomeration covering an area of 714.56 km².[1] whereas VMSS is involved in the development of area of 235 km².[1]

Three corporators are elected from each ward, who in turn elect a mayor. Executive powers are vested in the municipal commissioner, who is an IAS officer appointed by the Gujarat state government. The mayor is responsible for the day-to-day running of the city services, municipal school board, the city bus service, the municipal hospital and the city library. The Vadodara City Police are headed by a Police Commissioner, an IPS officer.

The City elects 1[5] member to the Lok Sabha (parliament) and 5[6] to the Gujarat Vidhan Sabha(Assembly) All of the 5 assembly seats of Vadodara were won by the BJP during the legislative elections in 2002. In the 2006 VMSS elections, the BJP won 74[24] seats, 6 seats went to the Congress.


The city is on the major rail and road arteries joining Mumbai with Delhi and Mumbai with Ahmedabad. Due to this Vadodara is known as a Gateway to the Golden Quadrilateral.


Vadodara Airport

Vadodara Airport (IATA: BDQ) is located north-east of the city. Vadodara has air connectivity with Mumbai, New Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, Bangalore and Hyderabad. A new integrated international terminal has been constructed at the Vadodara airport and was inaugurated on the 22nd October, 2016 by PM Narendra Modi. Vadodara Airport is the second International Airport of Gujarat, First Green Airport in Gujarat and Second Green Airport in India after Kochi. [25][26][27][28][29]


Vadodara Junction

Vadodara was part of the historic Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway (BBCI), which arrived in the city in January 1861.[30] On 5 November 1951 the BBCI Railway was merged with the Saurashtra, Rajputana and Jaipur railways to create the Western Railway. Vadodara Railway Station now belongs to the Western Railway zone of Indian Railways and is a major junction on the Western Railway Main Line.

Vadodara Junction railway station is Gujarat's busiest junction with almost 150 trains passing through every day.It comes under Vadodara Division of Western railways Passengers can travel to almost all the parts of India from Vadodara Junction, where there is a junction from the directions of Ahmedabad, Mumbai, Delhi and Kota (all four directions). It has one of the largest electric locomotives sheds in Gujarat and various trains have a loco change over at Vadodara. Trains such as Rajdhani, Shatabdi, Duranto and important mail/express trains halt at Vadodara Junction. Apart from various small railway stations Vadodara has 10 major railway stations namely Vadodara Junction (BRC'), Pratapnagar, Vishwamitri, Makarpura, Karajan (Miyagaon), Itola, Varnama, Bajwa, Ranoli and Nandesari.


Exterior of Vadodara Bus terminal inaugurated in 2014

National Highway 8, connecting Delhi and Gandhinagar with Ahmedabad to Surat and Mumbai, passes through the city. Vadodara is also connected with Ahmedabad through Indian National Expressway 1, a 97 kilometres (60 mi) stretch of super highway with exits at Anand, Nadiad, S.P.Ring Road and finally Ahmedabad. In the near future, this expressway will be extended southwards from Vadodara all the way up to Mumbai. The necessary land acquisition work is in progress and the government has placed the project on a fast track priority.

Public transport vehicles within the city include buses, autorickshaws and taxis. Buses owned by VMSS for public transportation are operated by the private bus operators Vinayak Logistics, which now runs over one hundred buses of 33 and 50 seater configurations. This development has reduced two wheeler traffic as well as provided a safe and cheap transport service. A significant proportion of the population uses their own vehicles – cars, scooters, motorcycles and bicycles.

Recently an airport like bus terminal was inaugurated in Vadodara by Narendra Modi the former Chief Minister.

A bus rapid transport system (BRTS) for the city is planned for the future.

Statistics regarding roads in Vadodara :


According to the 2011 India census, Vadodara city had a population of 1,670,806 and Vadodara metropolitan area had a population of 2,065,771. In Vadodara, 9% of the population is under 6 years of age.[31] Gujarati, Urdu, Marathi, Hindi and English are the languages spoken in the city. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%.

Population Growth of Vadodara 
Religions in Vadodara city (2011)[31]
Distribution of religions

People speaking different languages stay in the city. Apart from Gujaratis and Marathis, a significant population of North Indians, Rajasthanis, South Indians and Bengalis have settled in the city. All of them have various associations and community bodies in the city. This adds to the Cosmopolitan identity of the city.


Vadodara is the cultural capital of Gujarat where all traditional festivals are celebrated in a unique way. Vadodara is also known as Sanskari Nagari, i.e. Cultured City and according to the Gujarat tourism authority is the most sought after location for the dance style known as garba in the entire world.[34] Vadodara is one of India's most cosmopolitan cities. Thanks to the vision and broadmindedness of the Gaekwads, the subsequent industrialisation, the proliferation of academic activities and a strategically important geographical location, Vadodara has welcomed a wide variety of people from all over India and also from all over the world. In all of this, the sprawling and cosmopolitan MS University campus and the large number of local, national and foreign industries act as a catalysing and unifying force.

Religions and festivals

United Way of Baroda Garba Festival in 2011

Diwali, Uttarayana, Holi, Eid, Gudi Padwa, Ganesh Chaturthi, Navaratri (Garba), Maha Shivaratri and Shivaji Jayanti are celebrated with great joy.

Apart from this, Ganesh Chaturthi and Uttarayan are also celebrated with great zeal. During Ganesh Chaturthi, there are many Ganesh pandals arranged at the streets of the city. These are kept for seven days or ten days and then the idol of Ganesha is immersed at various water bodies in the city and majority of them are immersed at Sursagar Lake. People also have these idols placed at their home for five, seven or ten days and many of them use eco friendly ways to immerse these idols made of soil, by placing a water tub outside their house and then the water mixed with soil is then used in garden.

Sursagar Lake in Vadodara

Uttarayan is a festival of kites, musics and "tilgud" in the city. Before the festival starts, the markets are lined up with vendors selling kites, threads, balloons and fire crackers as well as various local cuisines. At night the sky is illuminated by crackers, kandils and fire balloons. The Marathi women here also perform "Haldi Kumku".

The most followed religion in the city is Hinduism, practised by 85% of the population. The second most followed religion is Islam, followed by 12% of the population. All other religious groups make up the remaining 4% of the city's population.

Art and architecture

Vadodara has a vibrant history related to Art and Architecture. Since the era of Royal Gaekwad family, it has been a hub of Arts and Literature. Hence, it has been bestowed the title of "Kala Nagari".


Vadodara has a professional cricket team, the Baroda cricket team, as well as the oldest cricket ground in Asia, called Moti Baug.[35] The team has won the Ranji Trophy six times. Reliance Stadium, a private cricket ground owned by Reliance Industries, which hosts ODIs. Some of the notable cricketer's from Baroda are Atul Bedade, Nayan Mongia, Irfan Pathan, Yusuf Pathan, Hardik Pandya, Kiran More, Krunal Pandya, Deepak Hooda,Ambati Rayudu. Football is also a famous sport played in the city. VMSS also launched one indoor sports complex located at Sama & one outdoor sports complex located at Manjalpur. Besides this the VMC is also coming up with a new swimming complex in karelibuag area of the city. The city has Bal Bhavan an institution which provides professional training in sports like lawn tennis, table tennis, badminton with cultural activities.


Vadodara has a number of newspaper publications. Apart from various English-language dailies sold in the city, Times of India, Indian Express and The Economic Times are largely circulated throughout the city. There are three local Gujarati dailies in the city – Sandesh, Gujarat Samachar and Divya Bhaskar. A large number of national and regional magazines, periodicals and journals are regularly published and circulated across the city. The Gujarati film and television industry has a small but significant presence in the city. The city has five local FM stations: Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz), Red FM (93.5 MHz), Big FM (92.7 MHz), Radio City (91.1 MHz) and All India Radio, Vividh Bharti (93.9 MHz)(Aakashwani). All India Radio is broadcast on the AM band.[36] Satellite radio was launched in nearby city of Ahmedabad by WorldSpace in 2005.[37] Vadodara News Magazine(VNM) is a local news TV channel that covers events in the city. Where Aaj Tak is carrying news of the city having national impact. Households receive television through two main cable networks, InCablenet and Siti Cable, while DTH is steadily gaining popularity in Vadodara.Our Vadodara is an Online Media that was started in 2011 and cover every aspects of Vadodara. A network of optical fibre cables connects almost the entire city. The city's telephone services are provided by landline and mobile operators like BSNL, Reliance Infocomm, Airtel, Vodafone, Idea, Uninor, Videocon and Tata Indicom. Broadband Internet services are provided in most parts of the city by the telecom companies. In the era of Technology, there are number of Applications on city too that provides detailed knowledge about the city. One of them is Vadodara Guide Android App, which is offline. Installations of 4G have completed in many areas of Vadodara by Reliance Jio Infocomm

Places of interest

Notable citizens

Sayajirao Gaekwad III, Real Sculptor of City of Culture, King of Vadodara


  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Institutional Setup in Vadodara" (PDF). Vadodara Municipal Corporation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 29 July 2007.
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  4. Census 2011, Indian. "Indian Census 2011".
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  18. "Climate of Vadodara" (PDF). India meteorological department. Retrieved 31 May 2014.
  19. "Corporate > About Us > Worldwide Presence > India". Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  20. MasterCard launches technology hub in India with facilities in Pune and Vadodara – The Economic Times. (5 February 2015). Retrieved on 2015-10-10.
  21. Switch conference at Vadodara in October - The Times of India. (01 August 2016).
  22. "Vadodara: Knowledge City" (PDF). Confederation of Indian Industry. Retrieved 16 March 2010.
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  26. Dave, Vimukt (22 October 2016). "Vadodara gets India's second green airport after Kochi". Retrieved 26 November 2016 via Business Standard.
  27. PM Narendra Modi inaugurates Vadodara International Airport
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  30. Sharma, Sachin (23 December 2009). "150th year of Railway in Vadodara". Times of India. Retrieved 24 December 2009.
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  34. "''If you come to Vadodara during Navratri, the nine night festival of dance in worship of the Mother Goddess, then consider yourself the envy of the rest of Gujarat, for you are in the most sought-after location for the event.''". Retrieved 26 May 2012.
  35. "Ground Profile". Cricinfo. Retrieved 17 November 2008.
  36. "Radio Stations in Gujarat, India". Asiawaves. Retrieved 14 June 2007.
  37. "WorldSpace Satellite Radio Lights Up Ahmedabad". Worldspace Satellite Radio. 3 November 2005. Retrieved 30 July 2006.

Further reading

  • Desai, Anjali. India Guide, Gujarat – Visitor's Guide. India Guide Publications. ISBN 0-9789517-0-0. 
  • F. A. H Elliot. The rulers of Baroda. Baroda State Press 1934. ASIN B0006C35QS. 
  • Gense, James. The Gaikwads of Baroda. D.B. Taraporevala Sons & Co 1942. ASIN B0007K1PL6. 
  • Kothekara, Santa. The Gaikwads of Baroda and the East India Company, 1770–1820. Nagpur University. ASIN B0006D2LAI. 
  • Gaekwad, Fatesinghrao. Sayajirao of Baroda: The Prince and the Man. Popular Prakashan. ISBN 978-0-86132-214-5. 
  • Gaekwar, Sayaji Rao. Speeches and addresses of Sayaji Rao III, Maharaja Gaekwar of Baroda. H. Milford 1933. ASIN B000855T0I. 
  • Rice, Stanley. Life of Sayaji Rao III, Maharaja of Baroda. Oxford University Press 1931. ASIN B00085DDFG. 
  • Clair, Edward. A Year with the Gaekwar of Baroda. D. Estes & co 1911. ASIN B0008BLVV8. 
  • MacLeod, John. Sovereignty, Power, Control: Politics in the State of Western India, 1916–1947. Brill Academic Publishers. ISBN 90-04-11343-6. 
  • Kamerkar, Mani. British Paramountcy: British-Baroda Relations, 1818–1848. Popular Prakashan. ASIN B000JLZE6A. 
  • Kooiman, Dick. Communalism and Indian Princely States: Travancore, Baroda and Hyderabad in the 1930s. Manohar Pubns. ISBN 978-81-7304-421-2. 
  • Desai, Govindbhai. Forty Years in Baroda: Being Reminiscences of Forty Years' Service in the Baroda State. Pustakalaya Sahayak Sahakari Mandal 1929. ASIN B0006E18R4. 
  • Maharaja of Baroda. The Palaces of India. Viking Pr. ISBN 978-0-00-211678-7. 
  • Sadashiv, Anant. A History of important ancient towns & cities in Gujarat & Kathiawad. ASIN B0008B2NGA. 
  • William, George. Cities of India. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 0-543-93823-9. 
  • Doshi, Saryu. The royal bequest: Art treasures of the Baroda Museum and Picture Gallery. India Book House. ISBN 978-81-7508-009-6. 
  • Roshan. Sri Aurobindo in Baroda. Sri Aurobindo Ashram Publications Department. ISBN 978-81-7058-318-9. 
  • Sheik, Gulammohammed. Contemporary Art in Baroda. Manohar Pubns. ISBN 978-81-85229-04-1. 
  • Bell, Horace. Railway Policy in India. Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 1-4021-8443-3. 
  • Shafer, Kathleen. Baroda: the Story of a Small Place. Celebrate Baroda 1890–1990. Baroda Centennial Committee, Michigan, United States. ASIN B000K016MG. 
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