Uniforms of the United States Marine Corps

left to right: Utility Uniform, Blue Dress Uniform, Service Uniform, and Evening Dress Uniform

The Uniforms of the United States Marine Corps serve to distinguish Marines from members of other services. Among current uniforms in the United States Armed Forces, the Marines' uniforms have been in service the longest. The Marine Dress Blue uniform has, with few changes, been worn in essentially its current form since the 19th century.

Dress uniform

The Marine Corps dress uniform is an elaborate uniform worn for formal or ceremonial occasions. Its basic form of a blue jacket with red trim dates back to the 19th century.[1] It is the only U.S. military uniform that incorporates all three colors of the U.S. Flag. There are three different variations of the Dress uniform: Evening Dress, Blue Dress, and Blue-White Dress; only officers and staff non-commissioned officers (SNCOs) are authorized to wear the Evening Dress. Until 2000, there was a White Dress uniform, similar in appearance to the U.S. Navy's Dress White uniforms, but worn by officers only (in a manner similar to that of the Dress White uniforms worn in the U.S. Coast Guard). This uniform has since been replaced with the Blue/White Dress uniform for officers and SNCOs.

Blue Dress

Officer Blue Dress Uniform. From left to right: "C","A","A","B","C"
Enlisted Blue Dress Uniform. From left to right: "B","B","A","D","C"

The most recognizable uniform of the Marine Corps is the Blue Dress uniform, often seen in recruiting advertisements. It is often called "Dress Blues" or simply "Blues". It is equivalent in composition and use to civilian black tie. The various designations are listed in descending order of formality:

Because the Blue Dress uniform is considered formal wear, Blue Dress "C" and "D" are rarely worn. The main exceptions are Marine Recruiters and Marine Corps Security Guards, who wear the "C" and "D" in warm weather, and Marine One pilots in place of a flight suit. Only the "B", "C", and "D" Blue Dress uniforms are authorized for leave and liberty wear; the "A" is not.

Officers, NCOs, and SNCOs wear a scarlet "blood stripe" down the outer seam of each leg of the blue trousers. General officers wear a 2 in (5.1 cm) wide stripe, field- and company-grade officers have a 1.5 in (3.8 cm) wide stripe, SNCOs and NCOs have a 1.125 in (2.86 cm) wide stripe. General officers wear trousers that are the same color as the coat, while all other ranks wear medium (sky) blue trousers. A blue boatcloak with a scarlet lining is optional.

A blue crewneck sweater, in the same color shade as that of the trousers, may be worn with the "C" and "D" uniforms, rank insignia is displayed on shoulder epaulettes, officers their respective ranks and anodized brass for enlisted. When wearing the crewneck sweater with the long sleeve khaki shirt, a tie is not required.

Blue-White Dress

Blue-White and Red Dress Uniforms

Prior to 1998, the "Blue-White" dress uniform was authorized to be worn for the ceremonial units at Marine Barracks, 8th & I in Washington, D.C. (most famously the Silent Drill Platoon and Color guard). Since then, it has become the authorized summer dress uniform for all officers (it replaced, in 2000, an all-white uniform, similar in appearance to that of the Naval Officer/CPO white dress uniform), SNCOs (unless they are in formation with NCOs and junior enlisted personnel who are not authorized to wear the uniform), and by NCOs and junior enlisted personnel for ceremonies and social events only, if authorized and provided by the command structure.

Like the Blue Dress uniform, the Blue-White Dress consists of an "A" and "B" uniform, and is worn in the same manner as that of the Blue Dress uniform, except for the trousers, skirt, or slacks being white instead of blue. Unlike the Dress Blues, the Blue-White Dress uniforms do not feature the "blood stripe". As with the Dress Blues, the "A" is not authorized for leave and liberty wear. The white trousers are not authorized for wear with either the long-sleeved or the short-sleeved khaki shirt, precluding the "C" and "D" uniforms.

Red Dress

To differentiate themselves from the infantry, musicians—at that time, buglers and signal callers—would reverse the traditional colors. Today members of the ten Marine Corps field bands wear the standard Blue Dress uniforms, while the members of the United States Marine Corps Band (The President's Own) and the United States Marine Drum and Bugle Corps (The Commandant's Own) both based in Washington, D.C. carry on this tradition by wearing the Red-Dress uniform (a scarlet blouse with blue trim).

Like the Blue-White Dress uniform, musicians are not authorized to wear the khaki shirts with the Red-Dress uniform. Should the condition warrant (e.g., summer heat), the band will wear a white shirt with the appropriate Dress uniform trousers (with the exception of the white trousers).

Evening Dress

Evening Dress. From left to right: SNCO, "A", "B" (general officer), "A" with boatcloak, "B"

The Evening Dress is the most formal (and by U.S. military standards, the most elaborate) of the dress uniforms, and is the equivalent of white tie in usage. It is authorized for wear only by officers and SNCOs, and a required uniform item only for senior officers (majors and above). It comes in three varieties:

A blue boatcloak with a scarlet liner is optional. Junior officers not required to possess Evening Dress may substitute Blue or Blue-White dress "A". It is appropriate for such occasions as state functions, inaugural receptions and dinners, and formal dinners.

Service uniform

Officer Service Uniform. From left to right:"C", Service with all-weather coat, "A", "A", Service with sweater
Enlisted Service Uniform. From left to right: "C", Service with sweater, "B", "A", "B"

The service uniform consists of green and khaki colors. (Per the Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Protocol Section, "Table of Service Equivalent Uniforms", dated February 2010, it is roughly equivalent in function and composition to a business suit.)

It is the prescribed uniform when

Like the Blue Dress uniform, the service uniform is authorized for wear while off-duty (i.e., while on leave or liberty).

The service uniforms are designated:

There are two types of authorized headwear for the service uniform. Both men and women may wear the green soft garrison cap, sometimes nicknamed a "piss cutter".[2] There is the option of wearing a hard-framed service cap (called a Barracks Cover). The design of these covers had differed between women and men. However, in late 2013, the Commandant of the Marine Corps approved the Marine Corps Uniform Board's recommendation to adopt the male dress and service cap as the universal dress and service cap for all Marines, male and female. As on the Blue Dress uniform, officers wear rank insignia on the shoulder epaulettes of their jackets and the collars of their shirts, while enlisted personnel wear rank insignia sewn on their sleeves.

A green crewneck sweater (originally adopted from British Army and Royal Marines issue) in the same color shade as that of the trousers may be worn with the "B" and "C" uniforms, rank insignia is displayed on shoulder epaulettes, officers their respective ranks and black for enlisted. When wearing the crewneck sweater with the long sleeve khaki shirt, a tie is not required.

Utility uniform

The Marine Corps Combat Utility Uniform or MCCUU is intended for wear in the field or for working parties, but has become the typical working uniform for all deployed and most garrison Marines and Sailors.[3] It is rendered in MARPAT digital camouflage that breaks up the wearer's shape, and also serves to distinguish Marine uniforms from those of other services. Previously, Marines wore the same utility uniforms as the Army. It consists of MARPAT blouse and trousers, green undershirt, and tan (specifically "olive mojave") suede boots. There are two approved varieties of MARPAT, woodland/winter (green/brown/black) and desert/summer (tan/brown/grey). To further distinguish the uniform, upon close examination, the Eagle, Globe, and Anchor can be found within the pattern.

MARPAT variants: woodland (left) and desert (right)

The variety worn depends on the environment: Deployed Marines wear whichever color is more appropriate to the climate and terrain;.[4] The desert MCCUU is worn with rolled sleeves [5] in garrison, with the sleeves of the blouse tightly folded up to the biceps, exposing the lighter inside layer, and forming a neat cuff to present a crisper appearance to the otherwise formless uniform. In the past, when Marines wore the same utilities as the Army and Air Force, this served to distinguish them from the other branches, who folded the sleeves in with the camo facing out. In Haiti, the practice earned them the nickname "whitesleeves". [6]

Both officers and enlisted wear rank insignia on each collar, which is affixed like a pin and not sewn on as in the Army/Air Force. Enlisted insignia is always black, while officers wear bright metal insignia in garrison and subdued insignia (or none at all) in the field. Most badges and breast insignia are authorized for wear on the utility uniform, shined or subdued as appropriate. Landing Support Marines also wear the Red Patch insignia.

Unlike the dress and service uniforms, utility uniforms are not permitted for wear on leave or liberty (i.e., while off-duty), except when traveling in a vehicle between a place of duty and a residence, or in emergency stops.

The approved headwear is the utility cover, an eight-pointed brimmed hat that is worn "blocked", that is, creased and peaked. In the field, a boonie cover is also authorized. The trouser legs are "bloused", or the cuffs are rolled inside and tightened over their boots with a spring or elastic band known as a "boot band" or "blousing garter". With the introduction of the Marine Corps Martial Arts Program (MCMAP), Marines now wear a color-coded rigger belt instead of the old web belt, indicating their level of proficiency in MCMAP (the web belt was phased out in 2008 due to a requirement for all Marines to achieve a tan belt rank by then).[7]

In combat, Marines will also wear one of two ballistic vests: the Outer Tactical Vest and the newer Modular Tactical Vest, as well as the Lightweight Helmet (replacing the PASGT helmet) and Improved Load Bearing Equipment. Marines in a combat area may also wear Flame resistant organizational gear, or FROG uniforms. These combat uniforms are designed to reduce fire-related injuries, and look quite similar to the MCCUU. Other individual equipment may be worn as directed.

The wearing of the MCCUU by civilian contractors deploying with Marine units was granted early in the Iraq War, but rescinded in early 2008.[8]

In January 2013, the Marine Corps solicited a request for a new tropical material variant of the MCCUU.[9] They are looking to purchase 35,000 sets of uniforms, that among other things will dry faster than the fabric used on the MCCUU.[10]

Physical training uniform

CMC Gen Conway leads a unit run wearing the new running suit on the Marine Corps birthday

The Physical training uniform or PT uniform consists of one of the following pairs:

In addition, Marines can wear a watch cap and gloves in cold weather, or a hydration pack to prevent dehydration.


A drill instructor (left) wears the campaign cover

The following items may be worn at the individual's discretion, except when in formation, ceremony, inspection, or when the commander decrees that uniformity is required:

Working uniforms will be worn when the individual's duties require, to include coveralls, flight suits, cooking uniforms, and other safety clothing like goggles, gloves, or aprons.

Wear by Navy personnel

A sailor wears the MCCUU with Fleet Marine Force insignia

Navy officers and enlisted sailors assigned to Marine units are authorized to wear all Marine uniforms except the Dress and Evening Dress uniforms. When wearing Marine uniforms, Navy personnel must meet and adhere to Marine grooming and physical regulations, as well as replace Marine insignia with U.S. Navy insignia whenever feasible. These members of the Fleet Marine Force include Doctors, Dentists, Nurses, Medical Service, Hospital Corpsmen, Chaplains, Religious Programs Specialists, Lawyers, Legalmen, Naval Gunfire Liaison Officers, Divers, and Naval Academy midshipmen who are selected for Marine officership.

Most Marine units will have, at minimum, Navy medical and religious personnel, who will be issued and required to wear the MCCUU; wear of other Marine uniforms is optional. Medical battalions and dental battalions, being almost entirely Navy officers and sailors, may direct other uniform wear. Other units, such as artillery, aviation, or legal units, may have other Navy personnel attached, and issued Marine uniforms.

Insignia, rank, and other accoutrements

Officer uniform insignia
Enlisted uniform insignia

Like any uniform, Marine uniforms have many accoutrements whose symbolism may not be obvious. One of the most notable adornments is the Eagle, Globe, and Anchor, found in some manner on most uniforms; it is even within the MARPAT digital camouflage pattern. It is also the standard cap badge for all uniform covers. An older insignia, progenitor to the Eagle, Globe, and Anchor can be seen in modern dress and service coat buttons.

The "blood stripe" is found on the outside seams of the dress uniform trousers of NCOs, SNCOs, and officers. Tradition holds that it represents the high casualty rates of those leaders during the Battle of Chapultepec.[16] Officers wearing the Evening Dress uniform also have additional gold trim on the trouser stripe.

Various uniforms display rank insignia differently. Enlisted Marines will wear chevrons on the sleeves of all uniforms but the Utility and other working uniforms: gold stripes on red for the Dress coat, green stripes on red for the service coat, green stripes on khaki for the khaki short and long sleeve shirts, and black metal or plastic pin-on insignia on the collar of the utility and other working uniforms and the all-weather coat. The same insignia is pinned on the epaulettes of the wool sweaters and tanker jacket. Officers will wear large insignia on the epaulettes of dress, evening dress, and service coats as well as sweaters and tanker jacket; smaller insignia is worn on the collar of all other uniforms (officers in a combat environment may wear subdued insignia, where flat black replaces silver and flat brown replaces gold). Chief Warrant Officers who are designated "Infantry Weapons Officer" with an MOS of 0306 (also known as "Marine Gunner") replace their left insignia with a gold or black bursting bomb. Navy personnel authorized to wear Marine uniforms wear their assigned rate. Musicians in the United States Marine Band replace the crossed rifle in their insignia with lyres to denote their non-combat role.

Marines wear awards in several ways. Large medals are authorized only on the Dress "A" uniform, while awards for which no medal was struck will have ribbons mounted on the opposite pocket. Miniature medals are worn on the Evening Dress uniform, and are authorized for wear with civilian tuxedos when appropriate to the event. Other dress and service uniforms are worn with ribbons and weapon qualification badges, though the unit commander may decide to forgo the latter. Breast insignia, also known as badges, are similarly worn, though individuals have the option of wearing subdued insignia on the utility uniform.

The buttons on the dress and service coats are reminiscent of Marine insignia prior to the adoption of the Eagle, Globe, and Anchor. The quatrefoil—the cross-shaped braid worn atop an officer's cover—is a distinguishing part of the Marine officer's uniform. The design is of French origin, and is a tradition from the pre-Civil War era when officers wore a rope cross on their caps to allow sharpshooters high in the rigging of a sailing ship to identify his allies in a battle. Enlisted Marines wear service stripes on the cuff of the dress and service coats, each stripe denoting four years of service as a Marine. The standing collar of the dress coat is reminiscent of the uniform that earned Marines the nickname "Leatherneck".

Green cartridge belts and/or brassards can be worn by personnel in an authoritative or ceremonial duty status (such as drill instructors or fire watch sentries), wearing such items regards the individuals as "under arms" whether they are actually carrying a weapon or not. As such, they do not uncover indoors. During ceremonies, officers have the option of wearing a Sam Browne belt and the Mameluke sword, and Noncommissioned Officers may wear the NCO sword. The current Mameluke sword is modeled on the sword presented to First Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon by the Ottoman Empire viceroy, Prince Hamet, in 1804, during the First Barbary War, as a gesture of respect and praise for the Marines' actions at the Battle of Derne.[16]

Members of the 5th and 6th Marine Regiments wear the French Fourragère to represent the multiple awards of the Croix de Guerre by the French government in World War I.

Comparison with the Army

Marines are sometimes confused with the United States Army. This was more prevalent when both services wore the same utilities, but with the introduction of unique digital camouflage patterns (MARPAT for the Marines, UCP for the Army), this is no longer a point of confusion. There are several other significant differences:

Various 8-point utility covers


Replica 1812-era uniform
Archibald Henderson in dress uniform, circa 1820

On 5 September 1776, the Naval Committee purchased the Continental Marines uniform regulations specifying green coats with white facings (lapels, cuffs, and coat lining),[20] with a leather high collar to protect against cutlass slashes and to keep a man's head erect.[21] Its memory is preserved by the moniker "Leatherneck", and the high collar on Marine dress uniforms. Though legend attributes the green color to the traditional color of riflemen, Colonial Marines carried muskets. More likely, green cloth was simply plentiful in Philadelphia, and it served to distinguish Marines from the red of the British or the blue of the Continental Army and Navy. Also, Sam Nicholas's hunting club wore green uniforms, hence his recommendation to the committee was for green.[1][22][23]

At the second founding of the United States Marine Corps in 1798, the Secretary of War authorized a blue uniform edged in red; blue chosen for naval ties, and red with sentiment for Royal Marines and John Paul Jones's Marines tradition of wearing red.[24] A year later, Marines were issued leftover uniforms from Anthony Wayne's Legion, blue with red facings. It was the beginnings of the modern "dress blues". The uniforms also came with a round hat, edged in yellow.[21] In 1834, President Andrew Jackson reinstated the green and white jackets of the Colonial Marines, with gray trousers. However, the dye on these faded quickly and in 1841 the uniform was returned to the blue—this time with a dark blue coat and light blue trousers with a scarlet stripe down the seam for officers and NCOs.

World War I–era uniforms: field (left) and dress (right)

In 1859, new dress uniform regulations were issued; the new uniform had a French-style shako with an unpopular pom-pon. There was also the option of a fatigue cap, fashioned after the French képi.[21] In the expeditionary period post Civil War, Marines began wearing a khaki field uniform, better suited to tropical and arid environments. In the 1890s, the Marines adopted some practical changes to the field uniform, adding a campaign cover, with a large Marine emblem on the side, and canvas leggings.[1][25]

In 1901 the emblem moved from the side to the front of the campaign cover. In 1912 the Corps adopted a "Montana peak" for the campaign cover and in the same year adopted a forest green uniform.[26] The green service uniform was adapted with a standing collar.

When the size of the Corps grew in World War I, Marines were forced to adapt surplus uniforms from the Army to clothe its troops and to maintain a similar appearance to the army to prevent soldiers from mistaking the forest green uniform for German uniforms. The garrison cap was introduced, originally to be worn overseas, as it could easily be carried when wearing the steel helmet. This marked the first time Marines, as well as other U.S. service members, wore distinct combat and non-combat field uniforms, in addition to dress uniforms. The service uniform was designated for ceremonies, garrison, and leave.

Sometime after World War I, the tradition of a "uniform of the day" designated by the unit commander was created to ensure uniformity of troops, now that there was a wide variety of uniforms available for wear. Also born was the tradition of reporting to a new duty station in the Service "A" uniform. In 1926, the standing collar on the service uniform was changed to a rolled-flat collar, but the dress uniform collar remained standing. A khaki version of the service uniform was adapted as well, for use in summer months.[27]

A World War II–era Major in winter service, summer service, & dress white uniforms

At the start of World War II, the Marine Corps had four standard uniforms. Dress Blues could be worn with a white canvas belt, a leather belt, or a blue cloth belt for officers, but their issue ceased in early 1942 except for recruiters and ceremonial units for the duration of the war.[28] The green winter service uniform, issued with a coat and a shell cordovan garrison belt for enlisted men with a Sam Browne belt for officers (until a cloth belt of the same material replaced both in 1943), was initially worn as a field uniform (such as the 1st Provisional Marine Brigade in Iceland wearing them daily). The garrison cap was reintroduced, originally to be worn overseas, but quickly became standard. The summer khaki service uniform featured pointed pocket flaps, and the trousers had no rear pockets as opposed to the Army's trousers having both front and back pockets. Beginning with a prewar deployment to Guantánamo Bay in early 1941, a fiber pith helmet began to replace the campaign hat worn in tropical areas and by recruits in training, but was eventually phased out as field uniforms were eventually replaced with utilities and helmets in November of that year.

When the 1st Marine Division arrived in Melbourne, Australia, Australian battle dress was issued for the cooler climate. The Corps adopted its own waist length Vandegrift jacket that continued being issued.

Marine combat uniforms were adapted from Army inventories again, a tradition that would continue through until the adoption of the MCCUU in 2000. However, they made more extensive use of camouflage, due to the jungle environment being more suitable for era patterns,[29] such as the reversible camouflage uniform was issued to some units in 1943.

Marine in Vietnam War–era utilities and armor

The introduction of women into the Corps doubled the number of uniforms, as women had an equivalent for every male uniform. After the war, female uniforms became close to their male equivalents as women were more closely integrated into the Corps, and the green service uniform was worn year-round as the khaki summer version was discontinued. In the late 1980s, the full white dress uniform coat was discontinued, though the white dress trousers remain in use for ceremonial units today.

After the Korean War, khaki utilities were replaced by olive drab versions, which were in turn replaced in the mid-70s by ERDL pattern uniforms. The Battle Dress Uniform became the standard utilities in the early 1980s, with the woodland and 6-color desert patterns available. After the Gulf War, the 3-color desert pattern was developed to address deficiencies, and worn until the MCCUU was adopted in 2000.

Swagger sticks were once in vogue in the Corps, starting as an informal accessory carried by officers in the late 19th century. In 1915, it gained official approval as recruiters were encouraged to carry them to improve public image. This tradition grew when Marines deployed for World War I encountered European officers carrying swagger sticks, leading to an entry in the uniform regulations in 1922 authorizing enlisted Marines to carry them as well. The usage died down in the 1930s and 40s, excepting China Marines, and returned in vogue when a 1952 regulation encouraged them; reaching a peak from 1956 to 1960, when Commandant Randolph M. Pate encouraged use. However, his successor, David M. Shoup, quickly made them optional[30] and discouraged their use. In 1977 then Commandant Gen. Louis H. Wilson issued a directive banning the carry of them while in uniform.[31]

See also


  1. 1 2 3 Chenoweth, H. Avery, Col. USMCR; Nihart, Brooke, Col. USMC (2005). Semper fi: The Definitive Illustrated History of the U.S. Marines. New York: Main Street. ISBN 1-4027-3099-3.
  2. "Marine Corps Uniforms". Marine For Life. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
  3. ALMAR 035/07 directing wear of the MCCUU
  4. directing uniform changess
  5. "MARINE CORPS COMBAT UTILITY UNIFORM POLICY CHANGE > The Official United States Marine Corps Public Website > Messages Display". Marines.mil. Retrieved 2014-07-23.
  6. Freedman, David H. (2000). Corps Business: The 30 Management Principles of the U.S. Marines. New York: Collins.
  7. ALMAR 034/07 directing all Marines to earn at least a tan belt by CY 2008
  8. ALMAR 004/08 rescinding permission for civilians to wear the MCCUU
  9. Susan Leigh D'Lugos (2 January 2012). "RFI, Industry Day Notice for Marine Corps Tropical Uniform". Department of the Navy. Federal Business Opportunities. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  10. "Rapid Fire Jan. 3, 2013: Uncertainty Reasserted". Defense Industry Daily, LLC. 3 January 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
  11. "MCSysCom Infosheet PT uniform" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-10-31.
  12. "Feedback sought on PT threads". Marine Corps Times. 2005-10-27. Retrieved 2007-08-30.
  13. Lance Cpl. Bryan G. Carfrey (2008-02-29). "New Running Suit Unveiled". Quantico Sentry. Retrieved 2008-03-14.
  14. Johnson, Kimberley (December 7, 2007). "Conway unveils new running suit in Iraq". Marine Corp Times. Retrieved 2007-12-09.
  15. Program Manager, ICE data sheets
  16. 1 2 Kelly, Jack (April 12, 2009). "Kill the pirates". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved 2009-04-14.
  17. Chief of Staff (3 February 2005). "3 Temperate, Hot-Weather, and Enhanced Hot-Weather Battle Dress Uniforms". Army Regulation 670–1: Wear and Appearance of Army Uniforms and Insignia (PDF). United States Army. pp. 17, par. 3–3.
  18. "1". Army Regulation 600–25: Salutes, Honors, and Visits of Courtesy (PDF). United States Army. 24 September 2004. pp. 1, par. 1–5c.
  19. Rolled sleeves to make return with Marines. Stars and Stripes. 25 February 2014.
  20. Smith, Charles Richard; Charles H. Waterhouse (1975). A Pictoral History: the Marines in the Revolution (PDF). United States Marine Corps History Division. Retrieved 2008-08-22.
  21. 1 2 3 Simmons, Edwin Howard (2003). The United States Marines: A History, 4th Edition. Annapolis, Maryland: Naval Institute Press. ISBN 1-59114-790-5.
  22. United States Marine Corps, Report on Marine Corps Duplication of Effort between Army and Navy December 17, 1932. Contains a very detailed account of almost all the actions of the Continental Marines and USMC until 1932. It's available in scanned TIFF format from the archives of the Marine Corps University.
  23. Smith, Charles R., Marines in the Revolution: A History of the Continental Marines in the American Revolution, 1775–1783, illustrated by Major Charles H. Waterhouse, USMCR, History and Museums Division, Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, D.C. 20380, 1975. Forward and Table of Contents online at http://www.scuttlebuttsmallchow.com/marrevwat.html
  24. Guidebook for Marines (18th ed.). Quantico, VA: Marine Corps Association. 2001. p. 11. Retrieved 2008-09-05.
  25. USMC entry on Digger History
  26. p.84 Simmons, Edwin H. The United States Marines: A History Naval Institute Press, 2003
  27. USMC Service Uniform in WW II on olive-drab.com
  28. p.30 Rottman, Gordon L. US Marine Corps 1941-1945 1995 Osprey
  29. USMC WW II Camouflage Uniform on olive-drab.com
  30. Shoup, Gen David M. (4 January 1960). "Inaguration remarks to staff". United States Marine Corps History Division. Retrieved 2 February 2010.
  31. Borsh, Fred L.; Robert F. Dorr (2009-03-16). "Swagger stick reached its zenith in the 1950s". Marine Corps Times. Gannett Company. p. 38. Archived from the original on 2009-11-14. Retrieved 2009-03-10.
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