1976 Tour de France
|Route of the 1976 Tour de France|
|Dates||24 June – 18 July|
|Stages||22 + Prologue, including three split stages|
|Distance||4,017 km (2,496 mi)|
|Winning time||116h 22' 23"|
|Winner||Lucien Van Impe (BEL)||(Gitane–Campagnolo)|
|Second||Joop Zoetemelk (NED)||(Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson)|
|Third||Raymond Poulidor (FRA)||(Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson)|
|Points||Freddy Maertens (BEL)||(Flandria–Velda–West Vlaams Vleesbedrijf)|
|Mountains||Giancarlo Bellini (ITA)||(Brooklyn–Gios)|
|Youth||Enrique Martínez Heredia (ESP)||(Kas–Campagnolo)|
|Sprints||Robert Mintkiewicz (FRA)||(Gitane–Campagnolo)|
It was won by mountain specialist Lucien Van Impe. The revelation of the Tour however was Freddy Maertens, who in his first Tour won eight stages and the points classification, and led the general classification for ten days.
Five-time winner Eddy Merckx did not join in the 1976 Tour de France because he was injured. 1975 winner Bernard Thévenet left the race in the 19th stage, but at that point it was already clear that Van Impe would win the race.
The mountains classification was won by Giancarlo Bellini with 170 points, only one point ahead of Lucien Van Impe. The young rider classification was won by Enrique Martínez Heredia. Heredia had already won the Tour de l'Avenir in 1974, but never broke through after this win.
The teams entering the race were:
Eddy Merckx, who already had won the Tour de France five times, had troubles to find his form in 1976, and suffered from saddle sores. He decided not to enter the 1976 Tour de France. The main favourite for the victory was now Joop Zoetemelk, who had never finished worse than fifth place in the Tour de France. The winner of the previous Tour, Bernard Thévenet, had a good spring season, winning the Dauphiné Libéré. The other former winner that was still racing, Luis Ocaña, had become second in the 1976 Vuelta a España, and was hoping to win again Also reigning world champion Hennie Kuiper was considered a pre-race favourite.
Route and stages
The 1976 Tour de France started on 24 June, and had two rest days, the first in Divonne-les-Bains the second at Le Barcarès. The 1976 Tour de France was divided into 22 stages and one prologue. Of the 22 stages, three were split stages: stages 5 and 22 were split into two half stages, and stage 18 was split into three smaller stages.
|P||24 June||Saint-Jean-de-Monts||8 km (5 mi)||Individual time trial||Freddy Maertens (BEL)|
|1||25 June||Saint-Jean-de-Monts to Angers||173 km (107 mi)||Flat Stage||Freddy Maertens (BEL)|
|2||26 June||Angers to Caen||237 km (147 mi)||Flat Stage||Giovanni Battaglin (ITA)|
|3||27 June||Le Touquet-Paris-Plage to Le Touquet-Paris-Plage||37 km (23 mi)||Individual time trial||Freddy Maertens (BEL)|
|4||28 June||Le Touquet-Paris-Plage to Bornem||258 km (160 mi)||Flat Stage||Hennie Kuiper (NED)|
|5a||29 June||Leuven to Leuven||4 km (2 mi)||Team time trial||TI–Raleigh–Campagnolo|
|5b||Leuven to Verviers||144 km (89 mi)||Half Stage||Miguel-Maria Lasa (ESP)|
|6||30 June||Bastogne to Nancy||209 km (130 mi)||Flat Stage||Aldo Parecchini (ITA)|
|7||1 July||Nancy to Mulhouse||206 km (128 mi)||Flat Stage||Freddy Maertens (BEL)|
|8||2 July||Valentigney to Divonne-les-Bains||220 km (137 mi)||Flat Stage||Jacques Esclassan (FRA)|
|3 July||Divonne-les-Bains||Rest day|
|9||4 July||Divonne-les-Bains to Alpe d'Huez||258 km (160 mi)||Mountain Stage||Joop Zoetemelk (NED)|
|10||5 July||Le Bourg-d'Oisans to Montgenèvre||166 km (103 mi)||Mountain Stage||Joop Zoetemelk (NED)|
|11||6 July||Montgenèvre to Manosque||224 km (139 mi)||Mountain Stage||José-Luis Viejo (ESP)|
|7 July||Le Barcarès||Rest day|
|12||8 July||Le Barcarès to Pyrénées 2000||205 km (127 mi)||Mountain Stage||Raymond Delisle (FRA)|
|13||9 July||Font-Romeu-Odeillo-Via to Saint-Gaudens||188 km (117 mi)||Mountain Stage||Willy Teirlinck (BEL)|
|14||10 July||Saint-Gaudens to Saint-Lary-Soulan||139 km (86 mi)||Mountain Stage||Lucien Van Impe (BEL)|
|15||11 July||Saint-Lary-Soulan to Pau||195 km (121 mi)||Mountain Stage||Wladimiro Panizza (ITA)|
|16||12 July||Pau to Fleurance||152 km (94 mi)||Flat Stage||Michel Pollentier (BEL)|
|17||13 July||Fleurance to Auch||39 km (24 mi)||Individual time trial||Ferdinand Bracke (BEL)|
|18a||14 July||Auch to Langon||86 km (53 mi)||Half Stage||Freddy Maertens (BEL)|
|18b||Langon to Lacanau||123 km (76 mi)||Half Stage||Freddy Maertens (BEL)|
|18c||Lacanau to Bordeaux||70 km (43 mi)||Half Stage||Gerben Karstens (NED)|
|19||15 July||Sainte-Foy-la-Grande to Tulle||220 km (137 mi)||Flat Stage||Hubert Mathis (FRA)|
|20||16 July||Tulle to Puy de Dôme||220 km (137 mi)||Mountain Stage||Joop Zoetemelk (NED)|
|21||17 July||Montargis to Versailles||145 km (90 mi)||Flat Stage||Freddy Maertens (BEL)|
|22a||18 July||Paris||6 km (4 mi)||Individual time trial||Freddy Maertens (BEL)|
|22b||Paris to Paris (Champs-Élysées)||91 km (57 mi)||Half Stage||Gerben Karstens (NED)|
|Total||4,017 km (2,496 mi)|
The prologue was won by Maertens. He won some more stages in the first week, and was firmly leading the race. The contenders for the overall victory, thought to be Bernard Thévenet, Joop Zoetemelk and Lucien Van Impe, were waiting for the mountains to start their battle.
The first mountain stage was stage 9, and there a group of 40 cyclists broke loose. Zoetemelk won the stage, but Van Impe took the lead in the general classification, with Zoetemelk only 8 seconds behind. In the next stage, Zoetemelk won the stage, but Thévenet and Van Impe were only one second behind him. The 11th stage did not see major changes in the top of the general classification, but it was remarkable as the stage with the biggest winning margin in post-World War II history. José-Luis Viejo won the stage, 22 minutes and 50 seconds ahead of the next cyclist. Then the Peugeot–Esso–Michelin team from Thévenet took control. Raymond Delisle sped away in the 12th stage, took a five-minute lead and won the stage, thereby taking the lead in the general classification.
After the 13th stage, won by Régis Ovion, Ovion failed the doping test. He was taken out of the results, and Teirlinck and Panizza, who originally were second and third, gained one place. In the official classification, the other cyclists were not upgraded, so the third place remains unoccupied. In the 14th stage, there was a group of attackers away, including Luis Ocaña. Van Impe was told by his team leader, Cyrille Guimard, that he should attack, but was reluctant to do so. Only after Guimard threatened to run Van Impe off the road by his car, Van Impe attacked. Zoetemelk waited for the Peugeot team to defend their position of leader in the general classification, but they were not able to. After a few kilometers, Zoetemelk noticed that his tactics did not work, and started chasing Van Impe by himself. Zoetemelk decreased the gap to 50 seconds, but then Van Impe reached the group of early attackers, and started to work together, especially with Ocaña. Ocaña and Zoetemelk had battled in the early 1970s against Merckx, and Ocaña remembered that Zoetemelk never helped him back then, so decided to work against Zoetemelk now. Zoetemelk could not follow them on his own, and lost three minutes in that stage. Van Impe and Zoetemelk had been going so fast, that 45 of the 93 cyclists finished outside the time limit, but the tour organisation decided to waive the elimination rule for that stage.
Van Impe won some more time in the time trial of stage 17, and Zoetemelk won a few seconds back in the 20th stage and in the time trial of the 22nd stage, but the Tour had been decided in the 14th stage at the moment when Zoetemelk decided to wait for the Peugeot team. The battle for the third place was between Raymond Delisle, Raymond Poulidor and Walter Riccomi. Poulidor, 40 years old, was racing his final Tour de France. After the 20th stage, they had exactly the same time in the general classification, and Riccomi was only 12 seconds behind them. In the time trial of stage 22a, Poulidor won a few seconds on Delisle and Riccomi, and was on the podium in Paris. At the end of the Tour de France, the combativity award was given to Raymond Delisle.
During the Tour de France, 110 doping tests were taken. Three cyclists tested positive. After the third stage, Jesús Manzaneque tested positive for doping. Manzaneque received a 10-minute penalty in the general classification and was suspended for one month. After the 13th stage, winner Régis Ovion failed the doping test. He was taken out of the results, and Teirlinck and Panizza, who originally were second and third, gained one place. In the official classification, the other cyclists were not upgraded, so the third place remains unoccupied. Bernard Labourdette was caught during the doping test, when he tried to cheat.
There were several classifications in the 1976 Tour de France, four of them awarding jerseys to their leaders. The most important was the general classification, calculated by adding each cyclist's finishing times on each stage. The cyclist with the least accumulated time was the race leader, identified by the yellow jersey; the winner of this classification is considered the winner of the Tour. The prize for the winner of the Tour de France was not only money, but also an apartment in Merlin-Plage.
Additionally, there was a points classification, where cyclists got points for finishing among the best in a stage finish, or in intermediate sprints. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a green jersey. The calculation was changed, to make the competition more accessible for the non-sprinters. There were five types of stages, with respect to how many points could be earned:
- Normal stages: stages 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 8, 16, 19, 21
- Mountain stages: stages 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 20
- Long time trials: stages 3 and 17
- Team time trials: stage 5a
- Short time trials: prologue and stage 22a
- Half stages: stages 5b, 18a, 18b, 18c and 22b
There was also a mountains classification. The organisation had categorized some climbs as either first, second, third, or fourth-category; points for this classification were won by the first cyclists that reached the top of these climbs first, with more points available for the higher-categorized climbs. The cyclist with the most points lead the classification, and was identified with a polkadot jersey.
Another classification was the young rider classification. This was decided the same way as the general classification, but only neo-professionals were eligible, and the leader wore a white jersey.
The fifth individual classification was the intermediate sprints classification. This classification had similar rules as the points classification, but only points were awarded on intermediate sprints. In 1976, this classification had no associated jersey.
For the team classification, the times of the best three cyclists per team on each stage were added; the leading team was the team with the lowest total time. The riders in the team that lead this classification wore yellow caps. There was also a team points classification. After each stage, the stage rankings of the best three cyclists per team were added, and the team with the least total lead this classification, and were identified by green caps.
|Denotes the winner of the general classification||Denotes the winner of the points classification|
|Denotes the winner of the mountains classification||Denotes the winner of the young rider classification|
|1||Lucien Van Impe (BEL)||Gitane–Campagnolo||116h 22' 23"|
|2||Joop Zoetemelk (NED)||Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson||+ 4' 14"|
|3||Raymond Poulidor (FRA)||Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson||+ 12' 08"|
|4||Raymond Delisle (FRA)||Peugeot–Esso–Michelin||+ 12' 17"|
|5||Walter Riccomi (ITA)||Scic–Fiat–Colnago||+ 12' 39"|
|6||Francisco Galdos (ESP)||Kas–Campagnolo||+ 14' 50"|
|7||Michel Pollentier (BEL)||Flandria–Velda–West Vlaams Vleesbedrijf||+ 14' 59"|
|8||Freddy Maertens (BEL)||Flandria–Velda–West Vlaams Vleesbedrijf||+ 16' 09"|
|9||Fausto Bertoglio (ITA)||Jolly Ceramica||+ 16' 36"|
|10||Vicente López Carril (ESP)||Kas–Campagnolo||+ 19' 28"|
|Final general classification (11–87)|
|11||José Pesarrodona (ESP)||Kas–Campagnolo||+ 21' 14"|
|12||José Martins (POR)||Kas–Campagnolo||+ 21' 45"|
|13||Wladimiro Panizza (ITA)||Scic–Fiat–Colnago||+ 22' 08"|
|14||Luis Ocaña (ESP)||Super Ser||+ 25' 08"|
|15||Raymond Martin (FRA)||Gitane–Campagnolo||+ 25' 35"|
|16||Giancarlo Bellini (ITA)||Brooklyn–Gios||+ 26' 43"|
|17||Pedro Torres (ESP)||Super Ser||+ 32' 44"|
|18||Ronald De Witte (BEL)||Brooklyn–Gios||+ 34' 21"|
|19||Ferdinand Julien (FRA)||Lejeune–BP||+ 36' 29"|
|20||Robert Bouloux (FRA)||Jobo-Wolber-La France||+ 39' 54"|
|21||Georges Talbourdet (FRA)||Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson||+ 41' 35"|
|22||Jean-Pierre Danguillaume (FRA)||Peugeot–Esso–Michelin||+ 41' 42"|
|23||Enrique Martinez (ESP)||Kas–Campagnolo||+ 44' 50"|
|24||Alain Meslet (FRA)||Gitane–Campagnolo||+ 46' 20"|
|25||Antonio Martos (ESP)||Kas–Campagnolo||+ 47' 42"|
|26||Bert Pronk (NED)||TI–Raleigh–Campagnolo||+ 48' 39"|
|27||Antonio Menendez (ESP)||Kas–Campagnolo||+ 49' 13"|
|28||Régis Ovion (FRA)||Peugeot–Esso–Michelin||+ 52' 36"|
|29||Christian Seznec (FRA)||Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson||+ 53' 52"|
|30||Bernard Bourreau (FRA)||Peugeot–Esso–Michelin||+ 54' 53"|
|31||José-Luis Viejo (ESP)||Super Ser||+ 55' 16"|
|32||Donato Giuliani (ITA)||Jolly Ceramica||+ 58' 40"|
|33||Hubert Mathis (FRA)||Miko-De Gribaldy-Superia||+ 1h 00' 03"|
|34||Miguel Maria Lasa (ESP)||Scic–Fiat–Colnago||+ 1h 00' 49"|
|35||Roger Legeay (FRA)||Lejeune–BP||+ 1h 01' 59"|
|36||Attilio Rota (ITA)||Scic–Fiat–Colnago||+ 1h 03' 11"|
|37||Luciano Conati (ITA)||Scic–Fiat–Colnago||+ 1h 04' 48"|
|38||Marcello Bergamo (ITA)||Jolly Ceramica||+ 1h 04' 50"|
|39||André Romero (FRA)||Jobo-Wolber-La France||+ 1h 07' 37"|
|40||Michel Perin (FRA)||Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson||+ 1h 08' 30"|
|41||Bernard Labourdette (FRA)||Jobo-Wolber-La France||+ 1h 12' 06"|
|42||Mariano Martínez (FRA)||Lejeune–BP||+ 1h 25' 34"|
|43||Jean-Pierre Genet (FRA)||Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson||+ 1h 26' 39"|
|44||Arnaldo Caverzasi (ITA)||Scic–Fiat–Colnago||+ 1h 27' 33"|
|45||Yves Hézard (FRA)||Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson||+ 1h 29' 34"|
|46||Michel Le Denmat (FRA)||Lejeune–BP||+ 1h 29' 45"|
|47||Guy Sibille (FRA)||Peugeot–Esso–Michelin||+ 1h 31' 27"|
|48||Maurice Le Guilloux (FRA)||Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson||+ 1h 33' 23"|
|49||Robert Mintkiewicz (FRA)||Gitane–Campagnolo||+ 1h 34' 11"|
|50||Enrico Paolini (ITA)||Scic–Fiat–Colnago||+ 1h 37' 14"|
|51||Ivan Schmid (SUI)||Flandria–Velda–West Vlaams Vleesbedrijf||+ 1h 40' 52"|
|52||Carlos Melero (ESP)||Kas–Campagnolo||+ 1h 46' 19"|
|53||Hubert Arbes (FRA)||Gitane–Campagnolo||+ 1h 46' 58"|
|54||Herman Van der Slagmolen (BEL)||Brooklyn–Gios||+ 1h 52' 48"|
|55||Celestino Vercelli (ITA)||Scic–Fiat–Colnago||+ 1h 56' 16"|
|56||Marc Demeyer (BEL)||Flandria–Velda–West Vlaams Vleesbedrijf||+ 1h 58' 53"|
|57||Albert Van Vlierberghe (BEL)||Flandria–Velda–West Vlaams Vleesbedrijf||+ 1h 59' 18"|
|58||Charles Rouxel (FRA)||Peugeot–Esso–Michelin||+ 1h 59' 26"|
|59||Alessio Antonini (ITA)||Jolly Ceramica||+ 1h 59' 42"|
|60||Sylvain Vasseur (FRA)||Gitane–Campagnolo||+ 2h 01' 47"|
|61||Patrick Beon (FRA)||Peugeot–Esso–Michelin||+ 2h 03' 56"|
|62||Herman Beysens (BEL)||Flandria–Velda–West Vlaams Vleesbedrijf||+ 2h 05' 04"|
|63||Pierino Gavazzi (ITA)||Jolly Ceramica||+ 2h 05' 05"|
|64||Knut Knudsen (NOR)||Jolly Ceramica||+ 2h 05' 33"|
|65||André Chalmel (FRA)||Gitane–Campagnolo||+ 2h 08' 49"|
|66||Marcello Osler (ITA)||Brooklyn–Gios||+ 2h 09' 53"|
|67||Willy Teirlinck (BEL)||Gitane–Campagnolo||+ 2h 12' 37"|
|68||Santiago Lazcano (ESP)||Super Ser||+ 2h 13' 24"|
|69||Paul Wellens (BEL)||Miko-De Gribaldy-Superia||+ 2h 14' 11"|
|70||Joel Hauvieux (FRA)||Lejeune–BP||+ 2h 14' 25"|
|71||Domingo Perurena (ESP)||Kas–Campagnolo||+ 2h 14' 43"|
|72||Roland Berland (FRA)||Super Ser||+ 2h 14' 50"|
|73||Regis Delepine (FRA)||Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson||+ 2h 15' 22"|
|74||René Dillen (BEL)||Gitane–Campagnolo||+ 2h 16' 13"|
|75||Guy Maingon (FRA)||Jobo-Wolber-La France||+ 2h 17' 28"|
|76||Gerard Vianen (NED)||Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson||+ 2h 20' 22"|
|77||Ferdinand Bracke (BEL)||Lejeune–BP||+ 2h 21' 24"|
|78||Adriano Passuello (ITA)||Brooklyn–Gios||+ 2h 28' 46"|
|79||José De Cauwer (BEL)||TI–Raleigh–Campagnolo||+ 2h 29' 52"|
|80||Jacques Esclassan (FRA)||Peugeot–Esso–Michelin||+ 2h 30' 13"|
|81||Roland Smet (FRA)||Lejeune–BP||+ 2h 31' 09"|
|82||Roger Loysch (BEL)||Miko-De Gribaldy-Superia||+ 2h 32' 25"|
|83||Jan Raas (NED)||TI–Raleigh–Campagnolo||+ 2h 39' 41"|
|84||Gerben Karstens (NED)||TI–Raleigh–Campagnolo||+ 2h 44' 27"|
|85||Eric Lalouette (FRA)||Lejeune–BP||+ 2h 50' 03"|
|86||José Luis Uribezubia (ESP)||Super Ser||+ 3h 10' 05"|
|87||Aad van den Hoek (NED)||TI–Raleigh–Campagnolo||+ 3h 12' 54"|
|1||Freddy Maertens (BEL)||Flandria–Velda–West Vlaams Vleesbedrijf||293|
|2||Pierino Gavazzi (ITA)||Jolly Ceramica||137|
|3||Jacques Esclassan (FRA)||Peugeot–Esso–Michelin||128|
|4||Enrico Paolini (ITA)||Scic–Fiat–Colnago||122|
|5||Gerben Karstens (NED)||TI–Raleigh–Campagnolo||109|
|6||Michel Pollentier (BEL)||Flandria–Velda–West Vlaams Vleesbedrijf||92|
|7||Régis Delépine (FRA)||Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson||80|
|8||Joop Zoetemelk (NED)||Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson||78|
|9||Lucien Van Impe (BEL)||Gitane–Campagnolo||74|
|9||Wladimiro Panizza (ITA)||Scic–Fiat–Colnago||74|
|1||Giancarlo Bellini (ITA)||Brooklyn–Gios||170|
|2||Lucien Van Impe (BEL)||Gitane–Campagnolo||169|
|3||Joop Zoetemelk (NED)||Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson||119|
|4||Francisco Galdos (ESP)||Kas–Compagnolo||85|
|5||Raymond Poulidor (FRA)||Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson||81|
|6||Pedro Torres (ESP)||Super Ser||65|
|7||Raymond Delisle (FRA)||Peugeot–Esso–Michelin||63|
|8||Antonio Menendez (ESP)||Kas–Compagnolo||59|
|9||Luciano Conati (ITA)||Scic–Fiat–Colnago||56|
|10||Walter Riccomi (ITA)||Scic–Fiat–Colnago||49|
Young rider classification
|1||Enrique Martínez Heredia (ESP)||Kas–Compagnolo||117h 07' 13"|
|2||Alain Meslet (FRA)||Gitane–Campagnolo||+ 1′ 30″|
|3||Bert Pronk (NED)||TI–Raleigh–Campagnolo||+ 3′ 49″|
|1||Kas–Compagnolo||350h 05' 39"|
|2||Gan–Mercier–Hutchinson||+ 9' 20"|
|3||Scic–Fiat–Colnago||+ 28' 02"|
|4||Peugeot–Esso–Michelin||+ 30' 49"|
|5||Gitane–Campagnolo||+ 40' 03"|
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Media related to 1976 Tour de France at Wikimedia Commons