Timeline of United States inventions (1946–91)

A timeline of United States inventions (1946–1991) encompasses the ingenuity and innovative advancements of the United States within a historical context, dating from the era of the Cold War, which have been achieved by inventors who are either native-born or naturalized citizens of the United States. Copyright protection secures a person's right to his or her first-to-invent claim of the original invention in question, highlighted in Article I, Section 8, Clause 8 of the United States Constitution which gives the following enumerated power to the United States Congress:

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries.

In 1641, the first patent in North America was issued to Samuel Winslow by the General Court of Massachusetts for a new method of making salt.[1][2][3] On April 10, 1790, President George Washington signed the Patent Act of 1790 (1 Stat. 109) into law which proclaimed that patents were to be authorized for "any useful art, manufacture, engine, machine, or device, or any improvement therein not before known or used."[4] On July 31, 1790, Samuel Hopkins of Pittsford, Vermont became the first person in the United States to file and to be granted a patent for an improved method of "Making Pot and Pearl Ashes."[5] The Patent Act of 1836 (Ch. 357, 5 Stat. 117) further clarified United States patent law to the extent of establishing a patent office where patent applications are filed, processed, and granted, contingent upon the language and scope of the claimant's invention, for a patent term of 14 years with an extension of up to an additional 7 years.[4] However, the Uruguay Round Agreements Act of 1994 (URAA) changed the patent term in the United States to a total of 20 years, effective for patent applications filed on or after June 8, 1995, thus bringing United States patent law further into conformity with international patent law.[6] The modern-day provisions of the law applied to inventions are laid out in Title 35 of the United States Code (Ch. 950, sec. 1, 66 Stat. 792).

From 1836 to 2011, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has granted a total of 7,861,317 patents[7] relating to several well-known inventions appearing throughout the timeline below. Some examples of patented inventions between the years 1946 and 1991 include William Shockley's transistor (1947),[8] John Blankenbaker's personal computer (1971),[9] Vinton Cerf's and Robert Kahn's Internet protocol/TCP (1973),[10] and Martin Cooper's mobile phone (1973).[11]

Cold War (1946–1991)

Post-war and the late 1940s (1946–1949)

1946 Space observatory

The Hubble Space Telescope

A space observatory is any instrument, such as a telescope, in outer space which is used for observation of distant planets, galaxies, and other outer space objects. In 1946, American theoretical astrophysicist Lyman Spitzer was the first to conceive the idea of a telescope in outer space, a decade before the Soviet Union launched the first artificial satellite, Sputnik into orbit.[12] Spitzer's proposal called for a large telescope that would not be hindered by Earth's atmosphere.[12] After lobbying in the 1960s and 1970s for such a system to be built, Spitzer's vision ultimately materialized into the world's first space-based optical telescope, Hubble Space Telescope, which was launched on April 20, 1990 by the Space Shuttle Discovery (STS-31).[13][14]

1946 Blowout preventer (annular)

An annular blowout preventer is a large valve that uses a wedge to seal off a wellhead. It has a donut-like rubber seal, known as an elastomeric packing unit, reinforced with steel ribs. During drilling or well interventions, the valve may be closed if overpressure from an underground zone causes formation fluids such as oil or natural gas to enter the wellbore and threaten the rig. The annular blowout preventer was invented by Granville Sloan Knox in 1946 who received a patent on September 9, 1952.[15]

1946 Tupperware


Tupperware is airtight plastic containers used for the preparation, storage, containment, and serving of perishable food in the kitchen and home. Tupperware was invented in 1946 by American chemist Earl Silas Tupper who devised a method of purifying black polyethylene slag, a waste product produced in oil refinement, into a molded substance that was flexible, tough, non-porous, non-greasy and translucent.[16] Available in many colors, the plastic containers with "burp seal" did not become a commercial success until Brownie Wise, a Florida housewife, began throwing Tupperware parties in 1951 in order to demonstrate the product and explain the features.[17][18]

1946 Spoonplug

A spoonplug is a form of fishing lure. The spoonplug was invented by Elwood L. "Buck" Perry, then a physics and math teacher in Hickory, North Carolina. Elwood Perry combined science with a logical approach to fishing to create a "total fishing system." He is credited as being the father of structure fishing and was later inducted into the National Freshwater Fishing Hall of Fame.[19]

1946 Chipper teeth

An example of chipper teeth

A chipper teeth is a variant of a saw chain used on a chainsaw. Using a tooth that is curled over the top of the chain, there are alternate teeth which point left and right. In 1946, American logger Joseph Buford Cox of Portland, Oregon invented chipper teeth, which is still widely used today and represents one of the biggest influences in the history of timber harvesting.[20]

1946 Filament tape

Filament tape or strapping tape is a pressure-sensitive tape used for several packaging functions such as closing corrugated fiberboard boxes, reinforcing packages, bundling items, pallet utilizing, etc. It consists of a pressure-sensitive adhesive coated onto a backing material which is usually a polypropylene or polyester film and fiberglass filaments embedded to add high tensile strength. Filament tape was invented in 1946 by Cyrus Woodrow Bemmels. In 1949, it was placed on the market and was an immediate success.[21]

1946 Credit card

1946 Diaper (waterproof)

1947 Transistor

A replica of the first working transistor.

In electronics, a transistor is a semiconductor device commonly used to amplify or switch electronic signals. Because the controlled output power can be much larger than the controlling input power, the transistor provides amplification of a signal. The transistor is the fundamental building block of all modern electronic devices, and is used in radio, telephone, computer, and other electronic systems. From November 17, 1947 to December 23, 1947, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at AT&T Bell Labs, underwent experimentations and finally observed that when two gold point contacts were applied to a crystal of germanium, a signal was produced whereby the output power was larger than the input.[26] The manager of the Bell Labs semiconductor research group, William Shockley, saw the potential in this and worked over the next few months greatly expanding the knowledge of semiconductors in order to construct the first point-contact transistor. Shockley is considered by many to be the "father" of the transistor.[8] Hence, in recognition of his work, the transistor is widely, yet not universally acknowledged as the most important invention of the entire 20th century since it forms today's building blocks of processors found and used in almost every modern computing and electronics device.[27] In recognition of their invention of the transistor, Shockley, Bardeen and Brattain were jointly awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics.[28]

1947 Defibrillator

Defibrillation is the definitive treatment for the life-threatening cardiac arrhythmias, ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. Defibrillation consists of delivering a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the affected heart. Dr. Claude Beck invented the defibrillator in 1947.[29]

1947 Supersonic aircraft

The Bell X-1

In aerodynamics, the sound barrier usually refers to the point at which an aircraft moves from transonic to supersonic speed. On October 14, 1947, just under a month after the United States Air Force had been created as a separate service, tests culminated in the first manned supersonic flight where the sound barrier was broken, piloted by Air Force Captain Chuck Yeager in the Bell X-1.[30]

1947 Acrylic paint

Acrylic paint is fast-drying paint containing pigment suspended in an acrylic polymer emulsion. The first acrylic paint was invented by Leonard Bocour and Sam Golden in 1947 under the brand Magna paint.[31]

1947 Magnetic particle clutch

A magnetic particle clutch is a special type of electromagnetic clutch which does not use friction plates. Instead, it uses a fine powder of magnetically susceptible material (typically stainless steel) to mechanically link an otherwise free wheeling disc attached to one shaft, to a rotor attached to the other shaft. The magnetic particle clutch was invented in 1947 by Ukrainian-American Jacob Rabinow.[32]

1948 Windsurfing

Windsurfing in Maui

Windsurfing, or sailboarding, is a surface water sport using a windsurf board, also commonly called a sailboard, usually two to five meters long and powered by wind pushing a sail. In 1948, 20-year-old Newman Darby was the first to conceive the idea of using a handheld sail and rig mounted on a universal joint so that he could control his small catamaran—the first rudderless sailboard ever built that allowed a person to steer by shifting his or her weight in order to tilt the sail fore and aft.[33] Darby did not file for a patent for his invention. However, he is widely recognized as the inventor of the first sailboard.[34]

1948 Hair spray

Hair spray is a beauty aqueous solution that is used to keep hair stiff or in a certain style. Weaker than hair gel, hair wax, or glue, it is sprayed to hold styles for a long period. Using a pump or aerosol spray nozzle, it sprays evenly over the hair. Hair spray was first invented and manufactured in 1948 by Chase Products Company, based in Broadview, Illinois.

1948 Cat litter

1948 Halligan bar

1948 Hand dryer

1948 Rogallo wing

Rogallo's flexible wing, which was tested by NASA as a steerable parachute to retrieve Gemini space capsules and retrieve used rocket stages.

The Rogallo wing is a flexible type of airfoil composed of two partial conic surfaces with both cones pointing forward. Neither a kite, glider, or a type of aircraft, the Rogallo wing is most often seen in toy kites, but has been used to construct spacecraft parachutes during preliminary testing for NASA's Gemini program in the early 1960s, dirigible parachutes, ultralight powered aircraft like the trike, as well as hang gliders. Before the end of 1948, American aeronautical engineer Francis Rogallo had succeeded in inventing the first fully successful flexible-wing kite that he called the 'Flexi-Kite'. A patent was applied for in 1948 and granted in 1951. His wife, Gertrude Rogallo, also made a significant impact upon the invention, having sewed the fabric into the required dimensions that used household items like kitchen curtains. Rogallo believed that flexible wings provided more stability than fixed surfaces, leading to an elimination of rigid spars during flight. Because of this, Rogallo's concepts are seen as classics examples of purity and efficiency in aviation.[38][39]

1948 Cable television

Cable television provides television to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted to televisions through fixed optical fibers or coaxial cables as opposed to the over-the-air method used in traditional television broadcasting. First known as Community Antenna Television or CATV, cable television was born in the mountains of Pennsylvania in 1948 by John Walson and Margaret Walson.[40]

1948 Flying disc

Flying discs are disc-shaped objects thrown and caught for recreation, which are generally plastic and roughly 20 to 25 centimeters (8–10 inches) in diameter, with a lip. The shape of the disc, an airfoil in cross-section, allows it to fly by generating lift as it moves through the air while rotating. First known as the "Whirlo-Way", the flying disc was invented in 1949 by Walter Frederick Morrison who combined his fascination with invention and his interest in flight. Carved from a solid block of a plastic compound known as "Tenite," Morrison sold his flying disc invention to WHAM–O, which introduced it in 1957 as the "Pluto Platter." In 1958, WHAM–O modified the "Pluto Platter" and rebranded it as a Frisbee flying disc to the world. It became an instant sensation.[41]

1948 Video game

U.S. Army General David H. Petraeus playing an interactive round of Wii golf

A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a video device. In 1948, ten years before William Higinbotham's Tennis for Two was developed, Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle R. Mann co-patented the "Cathode-Ray Tube Amusement Device," making it the earliest documented video game. Primitive by modern standards in video gaming, the amusement device, however, required players to overlay pictures or illustrations of targets such as airplanes in front of the screen, dovetailing the game's action.[42]

1949 Radiocarbon dating

Radiocarbon dating is a dating method that uses the naturally occurring radioisotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years. In 1949, Willard F. Libby invented the procedure for carbon-14 dating.[43]

1949 Airsickness bag

An airsickness bag, also known as a barf bag, airsick bag, sick bag, or motion sickness bag, is a small bag commonly provided to passengers on board airplanes and boats to collect and contain vomit in the event of motion sickness. The airsickness bag was invented by Gilmore Schjeldahl in 1949 for Northwest Orient Airlines.[44]

1949 Ice resurfacer

An ice resurfacer on an indoor ice rink

An ice resurfacer is a truck-like vehicle used to clean and smooth the surface of an ice rink. Frank J. Zamboni of Paramount, California invented the first ice resurfacer, which he called a Zamboni, in 1949.[45]

1949 Atomic clock

An atomic clock uses an atomic resonance frequency standard as its timekeeping element. The first atomic clock was an ammonia maser device built in 1949 at the United States National Bureau of Standards.[46]

1949 Holter monitor

A Holter monitor is a portable device for continuously monitoring the electrical activity of the heart for 24 hours or more. Sticky patches (electrodes) on the chest are connected to wires from the Holter monitor. The functions of a Holter monitor captures and records information such as heart rates during day and night, abnormal heart beats, and normal and abnormal heart rhythms. The Holter monitor was invented by Norman Holter.[47]

1949 Crash test dummy

Head, neck, and thoracic spine of a crash test dummy

A crash test dummy is a full-scale anthropomorphic test device that simulates the dimensions, weight proportions and articulation of the human body, and is usually instrumented to record data about the dynamic behavior of the ATD in simulated vehicle impacts. Using human and animal cadaver research from earlier studies, the first artificial crash test dummy was an anthropomorphic dummy named "Sierra Sam". It was invented in 1949 by Samuel W. Alderson at his Alderson Research Labs (ARL) And Sierra Engineering Co. for the United States Air Force while conducting tests on aircraft ejection seats, pilot restraint harnesses, and aviation helmets.[48][49] Alderson's early dummies and those of his competitors were fairly primitive, with no pelvic structure and little spinal articulation. With American automakers interested in durable crash test dummies that could be tested and retested while yielding back a broad spectrum of data during simulated automobile crashes, the first crash test dummy used for automative testing was again invented by Samuel Alderson in 1968. It was called the V.I.P. (Very Important Person) and it was built with dimensions of an average adult man coupled with a steel rib cage, articulated joints, a flexible neck, and a lumbar spine.[50]

1949 Compiler

A compiler is a computer program or set of programs that transforms source code written in a computerized source language into another computer language often having a binary form known as an object code. The most common reason for wanting to transform source code is to create an executable program. The first compiler written for the A-0 programming language is attributed to its inventor, Grace Hopper in 1949.[51]

1949 Aerosol paint


1950 Artificial snowmaking

A rear view of a snow cannon with its fan showing

Snowmaking is the artificial production of snow by forcing water and pressurized air through a "snow gun" or "snow cannon", on ski slopes. Snowmaking is mainly used at ski resorts to supplement natural snow. This allows ski resorts to improve the reliability of their snow cover and to extend their ski seasons. The costly production of snowmaking requires low temperatures. The threshold temperature for snowmaking decreases as humidity decreases. Machine-made snow was first co-invented by three engineers—Art Hunt, Dave Richey and Wayne Pierce of Milford, Connecticut on March 14, 1950. Their patented invention of the first "snow cannon" used a garden hose, a 10-horsepower compressor, and a spray-gun nozzle, which produced about 20 inches of snow.[53]

1950 Leaf blower

A leaf blower is a gardening tool that propels air out of a nozzle to move yard debris such as leaves. Leaf blowers are usually powered by two-stroke engine or an electric motor, but four-stroke engines were recently introduced to partially address air pollution concerns. Leaf blowers are typically self-contained handheld units, or backpack mounted units with a handheld wand. The leaf blower was invented by Dom Quinto in 1950.[54]

1950 Hamming code

1950 Teleprompter

A set of three teleprompters displaying text in the Japanese language

A teleprompter is a display device that prompts the person speaking with an electronic visual text of a speech or script. Using a teleprompter is similar to the practice of using cue cards. The screen is in front of and usually below the lens of the camera, and the words on the screen are reflected to the eyes of the performer using a sheet of clear glass or specially prepared beam splitter. The teleprompter was invented in 1950 by Hubert Schlafly, who was working at 20th Century Fox film studios in Los Angeles.[56]

1950 Sengstaken-Blakemore tube

A Sengstaken-Blakemore tube is an oro or nasogastric tube used occasionally in the management of upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage due to bleeding from esophageal varices which are distended veins in the esophageal wall, usually as a result of cirrhosis. It consists of a gastric balloon, an esophageal balloon, and a gastric suction port. The Sengstaken-Blakemore tube was invented by Dr. Robert W. Sengstaken and Dr. Arthur H. Blakemore in 1950.[57]

1951 Stellarator

1951 Cooler

1951 Wetsuit

1951 Correction fluid

1951 Well counter

1952 Airbag

A deflated airbag on a steering wheel after a traffic accident

An air bag is a safety feature designed to protect automobile passengers in a head-on collision. Most cars today have driver's side airbags and many have one on the passenger side as well. Located in the steering wheel assembly on the driver's side and in the dashboard on the passenger side, the air bag device responds within milliseconds of a crash. The original safety cushion was first created by John W. Hetrick in 1952. After a car accident that his family was involved in, Hetrick drew sketches of compressed air stored in a container. When a spring-loaded weight senses the car decelerating at a rapid enough rate, it opens a valve that allows the pressure in the container to fill a bag. With this knowledge, he developed his design until he was able to obtain a patent on the device on August 5, 1952.[64] Later in 1967, Dr. Allen S. Breed invented and developed a key component for automotive use in 1967, the ball-in-tube inertial sensor for crash detection. Breed Corporation then marketed this innovation to Chrysler.[65]

1952 Bread clip

A bread clip is a device used to hold plastic bags, such as the ones pre-sliced bread is commonly packaged in, closed. They are also commonly called bread tags, bread tabs, bread ties, bread crimps, or bread-bag clips. By sealing a bag more securely than tying or folding over its open end, the clip or tie may preserve its contents longer. The bread clip was invented in 1952 by Floyd Paxton of Yakima, Washington. Paxton never patented the device.[66]

1952 Barcode

A UPC-A barcode symbol

A barcode is an optical machine-readable representation of data, which shows certain data on certain products. Originally, barcodes represented data in the widths (lines) and the spacings of parallel lines, and may be referred to as linear or one-dimensional barcodes or symbologies. They also come in patterns of squares, dots, hexagons and other geometric patterns within images termed two-dimensional matrix codes or symbologies. Norman Joseph Woodland is best known for inventing the barcode for which he received a patent in October 1952.[67]

1952 Artificial heart

An artificial heart is implanted into the body to replace the biological heart. On July 3, 1952, 41-year-old Henry Opitek suffering from shortness of breath made medical history at Harper University Hospital at Wayne State University in Michigan. The Dodrill-GMR heart, considered to be the first operational mechanical heart, was invented by Dr. Forest Dewey Dodrill and successfully inserted into Henry Opitek while performing open heart surgery.[68] In 1981, Dr. Robert Jarvik implanted the world's first permanent artificial heart,[69] the Jarvik 7, into Dr. Barney Clark. The heart, powered by an external compressor, kept Clark alive for 112 days. The Jarvik heart was not banned for permanent use. Since 1982, more than 350 people have received the Jarvik heart as a bridge to transplantation.[70]

1953 Heart-lung machine

1953 Voltmeter (digital)

1953 Marker pen

1953 WD-40

1953 Apgar scale

1953 Gilhoolie

1953 Wheel clamp

1953 Wiffle ball

1953 MASER

1953 Carbonless copy paper

1953 Crossed-field amplifier

1954 Zipper storage bag

A zipper storage bag with the brand name Ziploc labeled

A zipper storage bag is a plastic bag with a sealed or zipped opening that allows for transparent viewing of stored items inside the bag. Better known under the brand name and genericized trademark Ziploc, zipper storage bags are commonly used to hold perishable foods and snacks. Zipper storage bags were patented by Robert W. Vergobbi on May 18, 1954. However, they would not be introduced to consumers until 1968, when Dow Chemical introduced the Ziploc bags.[82]

1954 TV dinner

A TV dinner is a prepackaged, frozen or chilled meal generally in an individual package. It requires little preparation, oven baked or microwaveable, and contains all the elements for a single-serving meal in a tray with compartments for the food. Carl A. Swanson of C.A. Swanson & Sons is generally credited for inventing the TV dinner. Retired Swanson executive Gerry Thomas said he conceived the idea after the company found itself with a huge surplus of frozen turkeys because of poor Thanksgiving sales.[83]

1954 Acoustic suspension loudspeaker

1954 Model rocketry

1954 Door (automatic sliding)

1954 Mogen clamp

1954 Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

1954 Synthetic diamond

1954 Radar gun

1955 Sling lift

A sling lift is an assistive device that allows patients in hospitals and nursing homes and those receiving home health care to be transferred between a bed and a chair or other similar resting places, using hydraulic power. Sling lifts are used for patients whose mobility is limited. The sling lift was patented on April 12, 1955 by Ronald R. Stratton in what he called a "floor crane with adjustable legs".[91]

1955 Crosby-Kugler capsule

A Crosby-Kugler capsule is a device used for obtaining biopsies of small bowel mucosa, necessary for the diagnosis of various small bowel diseases. It was invented by Dr. William Holmes Crosby, Jr. in 1955.[92]

1955 Nuclear submarine

The USS Nautilus, the world's first nuclear submarine, revolutionized naval warfare. Conventional submarines need two engines: a diesel engine to travel on the surface and an electric engine to travel submerged, where oxygen for a diesel engine is not available. By relying on nuclear capability, the USS Nautilus could travel uninterrupted for thousands of miles below the surface with a single fuel charge. Beginning in 1951, Admiral Hyman Rickover can be credited for the design of the world's first nuclear submarine who led and oversaw a group of scientists and engineers at the Naval Reactors Branch of the Atomic Energy Commission. After sea trials were conducted and testing was completed, the USS Nautilus became fully operational in January 1955.[93]

1955 Hard disk drive

1955 Harmonic drive

1955 Vibrating sample magnetometer

1956 Lint roller

A lint roller in use

A lint roller or lint remover is a roll of one-sided adhesive paper on a cardboard or plastic barrel that is mounted on a central spindle, with an attached handle. The device facilitates the removal of lint or other small fibers from most materials such as clothing, upholstery and linen. The lint roller was co-invented in 1956 by American electrical engineer Nicholas McKay and his wife Helen.[100]

1956 Kart racing

Kart racing or karting is a variant of an open-wheel motor sport with simple, small four-wheeled vehicles called karts, go-karts, or gearbox karts depending on the design. Karts vary widely in speed and some can reach speeds exceeding 160 mph, while go-karts intended for the general public in amusement parks may be limited to speeds of no more than 15 mph. In the summer of 1956, hot rod veteran Art Ingels built the first go-kart out of old car frame tubing, welding beads, and a lawnmower motor, not realizing that he had invented a new sport and form of auto racing.[101]

1956 Industrial robot

An industrial robot is an automatically controlled, re-programmable, multipurpose manipulator programmable in three or more axes. The first to invent an industrial robot was George Devol and Joseph F. Engelberger.[102]

1956 Operating system (batch processing)

An operating system (OS) is software (programs and data) that runs on computers and manages the computer hardware and provides common services for efficient execution of various application software. For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between application programs and the computer hardware, although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware, but will frequently call the OS or be interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on almost any device that contains a computer—from cellular phones and video game consoles to supercomputers and web servers. The GM-NAA I/O, created by Owen Mock and Bob Patrick of General Motors Research Laboratories in early 1956 (or late 1955) for their IBM 701 mainframe computer is generally considered to be the first "batch processing" operating system and possibly the first "real" operating system. Rudimentary forms of operating systems existed before batch processing, the Input/Output Control System (IOCS) being one example. However, what specifically differentiated and made the GM-NAA I/O as the first of its kind was that instead of having a human operator manually load each program as what previous systems were only capable of doing, computerized software as used on GM-NAA I/O, thereafter handled the scheduling, management, and multi-tasking of all computer applications.[103]

1956 Fortran

1956 Videotape

1956 Particle storage ring

1957 Skid-steer loader

A Bobcat skid-steer loader

A skid loader or skid steer loader is a small rigid frame, engine-powered machine with lift arms used to attach a wide variety of labor-saving tools or attachments. Though sometimes they are equipped with tracks, skid-steer loaders are typically four-wheel drive vehicles that can push material from one location to another, carry material in its bucket, or load material into a truck or trailer. Brothers Louis and Cyrill Keller co-invented the first skid-steer loader, which was based around a three-wheeled loader they developed in 1957 for a turkey farmer near Rothsay, Minnesota. In September 1958, they were hired by the Melroe brothers at Melroe Manufacturing Company in Gwinner, North Dakota, which was later to become Bobcat Company. Using the brothers' design, Melroe introduced the M60 Self-Propelled Loader and, in 1960, Louis added a rear drive axle, resulting in the M400 model, the world's first true skid-steer loader.[107]

1957 Laser

An experiment with a laser

A laser is a device that emits electromagnetic radiation through a process called stimulated emission. Laser light is usually spatially coherent, which means that the light either is emitted in a narrow, low-divergence beam, or can be converted into one with the help of optical components such as lenses. Lasers are used to read compact discs and bar codes, guide missiles, remove ulcers, fabricate steel, precisely measure the distance from Earth to the Moon, record ultradefined images of brain tissue, entertain people in light shows and do thousands of other things. In 1957, American physicist Gordon Gould first theorized the idea and use of laser technology. Despite a 20-year battle with the United States Patent and Trademark Office, Gould is now widely associated as the original inventor of laser.[108] In addition, Charles H. Townes and Arthur L. Schawlow, scientists at Bell Laboratories, wrote a paper, Infrared and Optical Masers in 1958 that was enormously influential on the theory of lasers. Ironically, Gould, Townes, or Schawlow never built the first working laser. On July 7, 1960, American physicist Theodore H. Maiman created and built the first laser. The core of his laser consisted of a man-made ruby as the active medium, a material that had been judged unsuitable by other scientists who rejected crystal cores in favor of various gases.[109]

1957 Confocal microscopy

1957 Sugar packet

1957 Air-bubble packing

Air-bubble packing, popularly known by the brand name Bubble Wrap

Better known by the brand name of Bubble Wrap, air-bubble packing is a pliable transparent plastic material commonly used for the cushioning of fragile, breakable items in order to absorb or minimize shock and vibration. Regularly spaced, the protruding air-filled hemispheres are known as "bubbles" which are 1/4 inch (6 millimeters) in diameter, to as large as an inch (26 millimeters) or more. Air-bubble packing was co-invented by Alfred Fielding and Marc Chavannes in 1957.[112]

1957 Borazon

Borazon, a boron nitride allotrope, is the fourth hardest substance, after aggregated diamond nanorods, ultrahard fullerite, and diamond, and the third hardest artificial material. Borazon is a crystal created by heating equal quantities of boron and nitrogen at temperatures greater than 1800 °Celsius, 3300 °Fahrenheit at 7 gigapascal 1 millionpound-force per square inch. Borazon was first invented in 1957 by Robert H. Wentorf, Jr., a physical chemist working for the General Electric Company. In 1969, General Electric adopted the name Borazon as its trademark for the crystal.[113]

1957 Gamma camera

A gamma camera is a device used to image gamma radiation emitting radioisotopes, a technique known as scintigraphy. The applications of scintigraphy include early drug development and nuclear medical imaging to view and analyse images of the human body of the distribution of medically injected, inhaled, or ingested radionuclides emitting gamma rays. The gamma camera was invented by Hal Anger in 1957.[114]

1957 Cryotron

1958 Doppler fetal monitor

1958 Cable tie

1958 Lisp programming language

1958 Carbon fiber

1958 Integrated circuit

The integrated circuit

An integrated circuit is a miniaturized electronic circuit that has been manufactured in the surface of a thin substrate of semiconductor material. Integrated circuits are used in almost all electronic equipment in use today and have revolutionized the world of electronics. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip was an enormous improvement over the manual assembly of circuits using discrete electronic components. On September 12, 1958, Jack Kilby developed a piece of germanium with an oscilloscope attached. While pressing a switch, the oscilloscope showed a continuous sine wave, proving that his integrated circuit worked. A patent for a "Solid Circuit made of Germanium", the first integrated circuit, was filed by its inventor, Jack Kilby on February 6, 1959.[122]

1959 Fusor

The fusor is an apparatus invented by Philo T. Farnsworth in 1959 to create nuclear fusion. Unlike most controlled fusion systems, which slowly heat a magnetically confined plasma, the fusor injects "high temperature" ions directly into a reaction chamber, thereby avoiding a considerable amount of complexity. The approach is known as inertial electrostatic confinement.[123]

1959 Weather satellite

1959 Spandex


1960 Child safety seat

1960 Artificial turf

1960 Magnetic stripe card

1960 Global navigation satellite system

NASA's Transit seen orbiting the earth, was the first operational GNSS in the world

A global navigation satellite system (GNSS) provides autonomous geo-spatial positioning with global coverage. A GNSS allows small electronic receivers to determine their location such as longitude, latitude, and altitude to within a few meters using time signals transmitted along a line of sight by radio from satellites in outer space. Receivers on the ground with a fixed position can also be used to calculate the precise time as a reference for scientific experiments. The first such system was Transit, developed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory under the leadership of Richard Kershner. Development of the system for the United States Navy began in 1958, and a prototype satellite,Transit 1A, was launched in September 1959. That satellite failed to reach orbit. A second satellite, Transit 1B, was successfully launched April 13, 1960 by a Thor-Ablestar rocket. The last Transit satellite launch was in August 1988.[129]

1960 Combined oral contraceptive pill

The combined oral contraceptive pill, or birth-control pill, or simply "the Pill", is a combination of an estrogen and a progestin taken orally to inhibit normal female fertility. On May 9, 1960, the FDA announced it would approve Enovid 10 mg for contraceptive use. By the time Enovid 10 mg had been in general use for three years, at least a half a million women had used it. Beginning his research and studies in the feasibility of women's fertility in 1950, Dr. Gregory Pincus invented the combined oral contraceptive pill in 1960.[130]

1960 Obsidian hydration dating

Obsidian hydration dating is a geochemical method of determining age in either absolute or relative terms of an artifact made of obsidian. Obsidian hydration dating was introduced in 1960 by Irving Friedman and Robert Smith of the United States Geological Survey.[131]

1960 Gas laser

A gas laser is a laser in which an electric current is discharged through a gas to produce light. The first gas laser, the Helium-neon, was invented by William R. Bennett, Don Herriott, and Ali Javan in 1960.[132] The first continuous visible gas laser, operating at 632.8 nm in the red, was invented by A. D. White and J. D. Rigden in 1962.[133]

1961 Spreadsheet (electronic)

1961 Wearable computer

1961 Frozen carbonated beverage

1961 Biofeedback

1962 Communications satellite

1962 Chimney starter

1962 Light-emitting diode

Blue, green, and red LEDs can be combined to produce most perceptible colors, including white.

A light-emitting-diode (LED) is a semiconductor diode that emits light when an electric current is applied in the forward direction of the device, as in the simple LED circuit. The effect is a form of electroluminescence where incoherent and narrow-spectrum light is emitted from the p-n junction in a solid state material. The first practical visible-spectrum LED was invented in 1962 by Nick Holonyak Jr.[141][142][143]

1962 Electret microphone

An electret microphone is a type of condenser microphone, which eliminates the need for a power supply by using a permanently charged material. Electret materials have been known since the 1920s, and were proposed as condenser microphone elements several times, but were considered impractical until the foil electret type was invented at Bell Laboratories in 1962 by Jim West, using a thin metallized Teflon foil. This became the most common type, used in many applications from high-quality recording and lavalier use to built-in microphones in small sound recording devices and telephones.[144]

1962 Jet injector

A jet injector is a type of medical injecting syringe that uses a high-pressure narrow jet of the injection liquid instead of a hypodermic needle to penetrate the epidermis. The jet injector was invented by Aaron Ismach in 1962.[145]

1962 Laser diode

1962 Glucose meter

1963 Kicktail

1963 Computer mouse

The first computer mouse

In computing, a mouse is a pointing device that functions by detecting two-dimensional motion relative to its supporting surface. The mouse's motion typically translates into the motion of a pointer on a display, which allows for fine control of a Graphical User Interface. Douglas Engelbart invented the computer mouse at the Augmentation Research Center, funded by the Department of Defense's Advanced Research Projects Agency (now DARPA) in 1963. The first mouse was carved from wood and tracked motion via two wheels mounted on the bottom. Later on, a ball instead of two wheels was employed. The concept was soon overtaken by a modern and more technologically advanced optical mouse.[150]

1963 BASIC

In computer programming, BASIC is a family of high-level programming languages. The original BASIC was invented in 1963 by John George Kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz at Dartmouth College in New Hampshire to provide computer access to non-science students. At the time, nearly all use of computers required writing custom software, which was something only scientists and mathematicians tended to be able to do. The language and its variants became widespread on microcomputers in the late 1970s and 1980s.[151]

1963 Balloon catheter

1963 Geosynchronous satellite

1964 Buffalo wings

Buffalo Wings, coated in Italian bread crumbs, deep fried, with butter, vinegar, and Tabasco hot sauce and chunky bleu cheese dressing dipping sauce

A Buffalo wing, hot wing or wing is a chicken wing section (drumette or flat) that is traditionally fried unbreaded and then coated in sauce. Classic Buffalo-style chicken wing sauce is composed of a vinegar-based cayenne pepper hot sauce and butter. They are traditionally served with celery sticks and blue cheese dressing. Buffalo wings get their name from where they were invented, at the Anchor Bar in Buffalo, New York. In 1964, Teresa Bellissimo at the family-owned Anchor Bar, covered chicken wings in her own special sauce and served them with a side of blue cheese and celery. In 1980, Frank Bellissimo, the husband of Teresa, told the The New Yorker that her buffalo wings were invented out of necessity because the restaurant had gotten an overstock of chicken wings instead of other chicken parts that the couple didn't know what to do with. On the other hand, Dominic Bellissimo, the son of Frank and Teresa, disputed this story. Dominic claimed that the wings were an impromptu midnight snack that his mother created on his request while drinking with friends. Whatever the story, all of the Bellissimo's have since died as there is no way to verify how buffalo wings were invented.[154]

1964 Plasma display

A plasma display panel is a flat panel display common to large TV displays. Many tiny cells between two panels of glass hold an inert mixture of noble gases. The gas in the cells is electrically turned into a plasma which then excites phosphors to emit light. The monochrome plasma video display was co-invented in July 1964 at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign by Donald Bitzer, H. Gene Slottow, and graduate student Robert Willson for the PLATO Computer System.[155][156]

1964 Moog synthesizer

1964 8-track cartridge

1964 Permanent press

1964 Carbon dioxide laser

1964 Liquid crystal display (dynamic scattering mode)

1964 SQUID

1964 Argon laser

1965 Adaptive equalizer (automatic)

1965 Snowboarding

Snowboarders at a ski resort

Snowboarding is a sport that involves descending a slope that is either partially or fully covered with snow on a snowboard attached to a rider's feet using a special boot set into a mounted binding. The development of snowboarding was inspired by skateboarding, surfing and skiing. The first snowboard, the Snurfer, was invented by Sherman Poppen in 1965. Snowboarding became a Winter Olympic Sport in 1998.[166]

1965 Kevlar

Kevlar is the registered trademark for a light, strong para-aramid synthetic fiber. Typically it is spun into ropes or fabric sheets that can be used as such or as an ingredient in composite material components. Currently, Kevlar has many applications, ranging from bicycle tires and racing sails to body armor because of its high strength-to-weight ratio. Invented at DuPont in 1965 by Stephanie Kwolek, Kevlar was first commercially used in the early 1970s as a replacement for steel in racing tires.[167]

1965 Hypertext

Hypertext most often refers to text on a computer that will lead the user to other, related information on demand. It is a relatively recent innovation to user interfaces, which overcomes some of the limitations of written text. Rather than remaining static like traditional text, hypertext makes possible a dynamic organization of information through links and connections called hyperlinks. Ted Nelson coined the words "hypertext" and "hypermedia" in 1965 and invented the Hypertext Editing System in 1968 at Brown University.[168]

1965 Cordless telephone

1965 Space pen

1965 Minicomputer

1965 Compact Disc

1965 Chemical laser

1966 Dynamic random access memory

1966 Thermosonic bonding

1967 Backpack (Internal frame)

1967 Calculator (hand-held)

1968 Racquetball

A typical racquetball racquet and ball

Racquetball is a racquet sport played with a hollow rubber ball in an indoor or outdoor court. Joseph Sobek is credited with inventing the sport of racquetball in the Greenwich YMCA, though not with naming it. A professional tennis player and handball player, Sobek sought a fast-paced sport that was easy to learn and play. He designed the first strung paddle, devised a set of codified rules, and named his game "paddle rackets."[187]

1968 Virtual reality

Virtual reality (VR) is a technology which allows a user to interact with a computer-simulated environment. Most current virtual reality environments are primarily visual experiences, displayed either on a computer screen or through special or stereoscopic displays, but some simulations include additional sensory information, such as sound through speakers or headphones. In 1968, Ivan Sutherland, with the help of his student Bob Sproull, invented what is widely considered to be the first virtual reality and augmented reality (AR) head mounted display (HMD) system.[188] It was primitive both in terms of user interface and realism, and the HMD to be worn by the user was so heavy it had to be suspended from the ceiling, and the graphics comprising the virtual environment were simple wireframe model rooms. In 1989, Jaron Lanier, the founder of VPL Research popularized the concept of virtual reality with his "google n' gloves" system.[189]

1968 Turtle Excluder Device

1968 Zipper (ride)

1969 Lunar Module

Apollo Lunar Module

The Lunar Module was the lander portion of spacecraft built for the Apollo program by Grumman in order to achieve the transit from cislunar orbit to the surface and back. The module was also known as the LM from the manufacturer designation. NASA achieved the first test flight on January 22, 1968 using a Saturn V rocket. Six successful missions carried twelve astronauts, the first being Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on July 20, 1969, to the moon surface and safely back home to earth. Tom Kelly as a project engineer at Grumman, invented and successfully designed the Lunar Module.[192][193]

1969 Electromagnetic lock

1969 Laser printer

A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. The laser printer was invented at Xerox in 1969 by researcher Gary Starkweather, who had an improved printer working by 1971 and incorporated into a fully functional networked printer system by about a year later.[195]

1969 Bioactive glass

Bioactive glasses are a group of surface reactive glass-ceramics. The biocompatibility of these glasses has led them to be investigated extensively for use as implant materials in the human body to repair and replace diseased or damaged bone. Bioactive glass was invented in 1969 by Larry Hench and his colleagues at the University of Florida.[196]

1969 Wide-body aircraft

Boeing 747: Queen of the Skies

A wide-body aircraft is a large airliner with two passenger aisles, also known as a twin-aisle aircraft. As the world's first wide-body aircraft, the Boeing 747, also referred to as a jumbo jet, revolutionized international travel around the globe by making non-stop and long distance travel accessible for all. Joe Sutter, the chief engineer of the jumbo jet program at The Boeing Company designed the world's first wide-body aircraft, the Boeing 747, with its first test flight on February 9, 1969.[197]

1969 Taser

A Taser is an electroshock weapon that uses Electro-Muscular Disruption (EMD) technology to cause neuromuscular incapacitation (NMI) and strong muscle contractions through the involuntary stimulation of both the sensory nerves and the motor nerves. The Taser is not dependent on pain compliance, making it highly effective on subjects with high pain tolerance. For this reason it is preferred by law enforcement over traditional stun guns and other electronic control weapons. Jack Cover, a NASA researcher, invented the Taser in 1969.[198]

1969 Charge coupled device

A specially developed charge coupled device used for ultraviolet imaging in a wire bonded package

A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a device for the movement of electrical charge, usually from within the device to an area where the charge can be manipulated. This is achieved by "shifting" the signals between stages within the device one at a time. CCDs move charge between capacitive bins in the device, with the shift allowing for the transfer of charge between bins. Often the device is integrated with an image sensor, such as a photoelectric device to produce the charge that is being read, thus making the CCD a major technology for digital imaging. First conceived in its usefulness for computer memory, the charge coupled device was co-invented in 1969 by American physicist George E. Smith and Canadian physicist Willard Boyle at AT&T Bell Laboratories.[199]

1969 Mousepad

A mousepad is a hard surface, square-shaped and rubberized mat for enhancing the usability of a computer mouse. Jack Kelley invented the mousepad in 1969.[200]

1969 Chapman Stick

A polyphonic member of the guitar family, the Chapman Stick is an electric musical instrument used for music recordings to play various parts such as bass, lead, chords, and textures. The Chapman Stick looks like a wide version of the fretboard of an electric guitar, but having 8, 10 or 12 strings. The player will use both hands to sound notes by striking the strings against the fingerboard just behind the appropriate frets for the desired notes. The Chapman Stick was invented in 1969 by American jazz musician Emmett Chapman.[201]

1969 Markup language


1970 Wireless local area network

1970 Surf leash

1971 Uno (card game)

1971 Personal computer

An early personal computer

The personal computer (PC) is any computer whose original sales price, size, and capabilities make it useful for individuals, and which is intended to be operated directly by an end user, with no intervening computer operator. The Kenbak-1 is officially credited by the Computer History Museum to be the world's first personal computer which was invented in 1971 by John Blankenbaker.[206][207] With a price tag of $750 and after selling only 40 machines, Kenbak Corporation closed its doors in 1973.[206]

1971 Fuzzball router

Fuzzball routers were the first modern routers on the Internet. They were DEC LSI-11 computers loaded with router software. First conceptualized by its inventor, David L. Mills, fuzzball routers evolved as a virtual machine supporting the DEC RT-11 operating system and early developmental versions of the TCP/IP protocol and applications suite. Prototype versions of popular Internet tools, including Telnet, FTP, DNS, EGP and SMTP were first implemented and tested on fuzzball routers.[208]

1971 Supercritical airfoil

A supercritical airfoil is an airfoil designed, primarily, to delay the onset of wave drag on aircraft in the transonic speed range. Supercritical airfoils are characterized by their flattened upper surface, highly cambered aft section, and greater leading edge radius as compared to traditional airfoil shapes. The supercritical airfoil was invented and designed by NASA aeronautical engineer Richard Whitcomb in the 1960s. Testing successfully commenced on a United States Navy Vought F-8U fighter through wind tunnel results in 1971.[209]

1971 Microprocessor

The microprocessor

The microprocessor is a computer chip that processes instructions and communicates with outside devices, controlling most of the operations of a computer through the central processing unit on a single integrated circuit. The first commercially available microprocessor was a silicon-based chip, the Intel 4004, co-invented in 1971 by Ted Hoff, Federico Faggin, and Stanley Mazor for a calculator company named Busicom, and produced by Intel.[210]

1971 Floppy disk

A floppy disk is a data storage medium that is composed of a disk of thin, flexible "floppy" magnetic storage medium encased in a square or rectangular plastic shell. In 1971 while working at IBM, David L. Noble invented the 8-inch floppy disk. Floppy disks in 8-inch, 5¼-inch, and 3½-inch formats enjoyed many years as a popular and ubiquitous form of data storage and exchange, from the mid-1970s to the late 1990s.[211]

1971 String trimmer

A string trimmer is a powered handheld device that uses a flexible monofilament line instead of a blade for cutting grass and trimming other plants near objects. It consists of a cutting head at the end of a long shaft with a handle or handles and sometimes a shoulder strap. String trimmers powered by an internal combustion engine have the engine on the opposite end of the shaft from the cutting head while electric string trimmers typically have an electric motor in the cutting head. Used frequently in lawn and garden care, the string trimmer is more popularly known by the brandnames Weedeater or Weedwhacker. The string trimmer was invented in 1971 by George Ballas of Houston, Texas.[212]

1971 Memristor

1971 E-mail

The interface of an e-mail client

Electronic mail, often shortened to e-mail, is a method of creating, transmitting, or storing primarily text-based human communications with digital communications systems. Ray Tomlinson as a programmer while working on the United States Department of Defense's ARPANET, invented and sent the first electronic mail on a time-sharing computer in 1971. Previously, e-mail could only be sent to users on the same computer. Tomlinson is regarded as having sent the first e-mail on a network and for making the "@" sign the mainstream of e-mail communications.[214]

1972 C (programming language)

C is a general-purpose computer programming language originally invented in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories in order to implement the Unix operating system. Although C was designed for writing architecturally independent system software, it is also widely used for developing application software.[215]

1972 Video game console

A video game console is an interactive entertainment computer or electronic device that produces a video display signal which can be used with a display device such as a television to display a video game. A joystick or control pad is often used to simulate and play the video game. It was not until 1972 that Magnavox released the first home video game console, the Magnavox Odyssey, invented by Ralph H. Baer.[216]

1972 Global Positioning System

A GPS receiver for civilian use

The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a space-based global navigation satellite system that provides reliable, three-dimensional positioning, navigation, and timing services to worldwide users on a continuous basis in all weather, day and night, anywhere on or near the Earth. 24 satellites orbit around the Earth twice a day, transmitting signaled information to GPS receivers that take this information and use triangulation to calculate the user's exact location. Ultimately, the GPS is the descendant of the United States Navy's Timation satellite program and the United States Air Force's 621-B satellite program. The invention of GPS was a collaborative and team effort. The basic architecture of GPS was devised in less than a month in 1972 by Colonel Bradford Parkinson, Mel Birnbaum, Bob Rennard, and Jim Spilker. However, Richard Easton, a son of Roger Easton who was the head of the U.S. Navy's Timation program, claims that his father invented GPS and filed U.S. patent #3,789,409 in 1974. Other names listed by Richard Easton are James Buisson, Thomas McCaskill, Don Lynch, Charles Bartholomew, Randolph Zwirn and, "an important outsider," Robert Kern. Ivan Getting, while working at Raytheon, envisioned a satellite system similar to MOSAIC, a railroad mobile ballistic missile guidance system, but working more like LORAN.[217] The GPS program was approved in December 1973, the first GPS satellite was launched in 1978, and by August 1993, 24 GPS satellites were in orbit. Initial operational capability was established in December of that same year while in February 1994, the Federal Aviation Agency (FAA) declared GPS ready for use.[218]

1972 PET scanner

1972 Magnetic resonance imaging

1973 Personal watercraft

A derivative of a personal water craft

A personal watercraft (PWC) is a recreational watercraft that the rider sits or stands on, rather than inside of, as in a boat. Models have an inboard engine driving a pump jet that has a screw-shaped impeller to create thrust for propulsion and steering. Clayton Jacobson II is credited with inventing the personal watercraft, including both the sit-down and stand-up models in 1973.[225]

1973 E-paper

Electronic paper, also called e-paper, is a display technology designed to mimic the appearance of ordinary ink on paper. Electronic paper reflects light like ordinary paper and is capable of holding text and images indefinitely without drawing electricity, while allowing the image to be changed later. Applications of e-paper technology include e-book readers capable of displaying digital versions of books, magazines and newspapers, electronic pricing labels in retail shops, time tables at bus stations, and electronic billboards. Electronic paper was invented in 1973 by Nick Sheridon at Xerox's Palo Alto Research Center. The first electronic paper, called Gyricon, consisted of polyethylene spheres between 75 and 106 micrometres across.[226]

1973 Recombinant DNA

1973 Catalytic converter (three-way)

1973 Mobile phone

The mobile phone

A mobile phone, or cell phone, is a long-range, electronic device used for mobile voice or data communication over a network of specialized base stations known as cell sites. Early mobile FM radio telephones were in use for many years, but since the number of radio frequencies were very limited in any area, the number of phone calls were also very limited. To solve this problem, there could be many small areas called cells which share the same frequencies. When users moved from one area to another while calling, the call would have to be switched over automatically without losing the call. In this system, a small number of radio frequencies could accommodate a huge number of calls. The first mobile call was made from a car phone in St. Louis, Missouri on June 17, 1946, but the system was impractical from what is considered a portable handset today. The equipment weighed 80 lbs, and the AT&T service, basically a massive party line, cost $30 per month plus 30 to 40 cents per local call.[229] The basic network and supporting infrastructure of hexagonal cells used to support a mobile telephony system while remaining on the same channel were devised by Douglas H. Ring and W. Rae Young at AT&T Bell Labs in 1947. Finally in 1973, Martin Cooper invented the first handheld cellular/mobile phone. His first mobile phone call was made to Joel S. Engel in April 1973.[11][230]

1973 Voicemail

1974 Heimlich maneuver

1974 Post-it note

1974 Scanning acoustic microscope

1974 Quantum well laser

1974 Universal Product Code

1975 Digital camera

A typical DSLR camera

The digital camera is a camera that takes video or still photographs, digitally by recording images via an electronic image sensor. Steven Sasson as an engineer at Eastman Kodak invented and built the first digital camera using a CCD image sensor in 1975.[237][238]

1975 Ethernet

The ethernet is a family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). The name comes from the physical concept of the ether. It defines a number of wiring and signaling standards for the Physical Layer of the OSI networking model, through means of network access at the Media Access Control (MAC)/Data Link Layer, and a common addressing format. Robert Metcalfe, while at Xerox invented the ethernet in 1975.[239]

1975 Breakaway rim

A breakaway rim is a basketball hoop that can bend slightly when a player dunks a basketball, and then instantly snap back into its original shape when the player releases it. It allows players to dunk the ball without shattering the backboard, and it reduces the possibility of wrist injuries. According to the Lemelson Center, an affiliation of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington D.C., the breakaway rim was invented by Arthur Ehrat. After six years, from July 1976 to December 1982, Ehrat received a patent (U.S. Patent No. 4,365,802). His application was rejected twice, with patent examiner Paul Shapiro noting that Frederick C. Tyner held a patent for a similar device (U.S. Patent No. 4,111,420). However, a court appeal finally ruled in favor of Ehrat, as he proved through notarized copies of canceled checks and a rough sketch of his invention, that he was working on his breakaway basketball goal in 1975 before Frederick Tyner conceived of his.[240]

1976 Gore-Tex

1977 Human-powered aircraft

1977 Chemical oxygen iodine laser

1978 Slide Away Bed

1978 Popcorn bag

1978 Bulletin board system

1979 Winglets

A winglet attached to the tip of a Continental Airlines Boeing 757 wing

Wingtip devices or winglets are usually intended to improve the efficiency of fixed-wing aircraft. The concept of winglets originated in the late 19th century, but the idea remained on the drawing board. Throughout the 1970s when the price of aviation fuel started spiraling upward, NASA aeronautical engineer Richard Whitcomb began investigating and studying the feasibility of winglets in order to improve overall aerodynamics and reduce drag on aircraft. Whitcomb's tests finally culminated with the first successful test flight of his attached winglets on a KC-135 Stratotanker on July 24, 1979.[247]

1979 Polar fleece

Polar fleece, or "fleece", is a soft napped insulating synthetic wool fabric made from polyethylene terephthalate or other synthetic fibers. Found in jackets, hoodies, and casual wear, fleece has some of wool's finest qualities but weighs a fraction of the lightest available woolens. The first form of polar fleece was invented in 1979 by Malden Mills, now Polartec LLC., which was a new, light, and strong pile fabric meant to mimic and in some ways surpass wool.[248]

1980s and the early 1990s (1980–1991)

1981 Control-Alt-Delete

1981 Total internal reflection fluorescence microscope

1981 Space shuttle

The Space Shuttle: World's most complex machine

The Space Shuttle, part of the Space Transportation System (STS), is a spacecraft operated by NASA for orbital human spaceflight missions. It carries payloads to low Earth orbit, provides crew rotation for the International Space Station (ISS), and performs servicing missions. The orbiter can also recover satellites and other payloads from orbit and return them to Earth. In 1981, NASA successfully launched its reusable spacecraft called the Space Shuttle. George Mueller, an American from St. Louis, Missouri is widely credited for jump starting, designing, and overseeing the Space Shuttle program after the demise of the Apollo program in 1972.[251]

1981 Paintball

Paintball is a game in which players eliminate opponents by hitting them with pellets containing paint usually shot from a carbon dioxide or compressed-gas, HPA or N20, in a powered paintball gun. The idea of the game was first conceived and co-invented in 1976 by Hayes Noel, Bob Gurnsey, and Charles Gaines. However, the game of paintball was not first played until June 27, 1981.[252]

1981 Graphic User Interface

Short for Graphic User Interface, the GUI uses windows, icons, and menus to carry out commands such as opening files, deleting files, moving files, etc. and although many GUI Operating Systems are operated by using a mouse, the keyboard can also be used by using keyboard shortcuts or arrow keys. The GUI was co-invented at Xerox PARC by Alan Kay and Douglas Engelbart in 1981.[253]

1983 Internet

ARPANET logical map, 1977

Not to be confused with a separate application known as the World wide web which was invented much later in the early 1990s (see article on the English inventor Tim Berners-Lee), the Internet is the global system of overall interconnected computer networks that use the standardized Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) to serve billions of users worldwide. It is a network of networks that consists of millions of private and public, academic, business, and government networks of local to global scope that are linked by copper wires, fiber-optic cables, wireless connections, and other technologies. The concept of packet switching of a network was first explored by Paul Baran in the early 1960s,[254] and the mathematical formulations behind packet switching were later devised by Leonard Kleinrock.[255] On October 29, 1969, the world's first electronic computer network, the ARPANET, was established between nodes at Leonard Kleinrock's lab at UCLA and Douglas Engelbart's lab at the Stanford Research Institute (now SRI International).[256] Another milestone occurred in 1973 when Bob Kahn and Vinton Cerf co-invented Internet Protocol and Transmission Control Protocol while working on ARPANET at the United States Department of Defense.[10] The first TCP/IP-wide area network was operational on January 1, 1983, when the United States' National Science Foundation (NSF) constructed the university network backbone that would later become the NSFNet. This date is held as the "birth" of the Internet.[257][258]

1983 Blind signature

1983 Laser turntable

1984 LCD projector

1984 Pointing stick

1984 Polymerase chain reaction

1986 Atomic force microscope

1986 Stereolithography

1987 Digital Micromirror Device

1987 Perl

1988 Luggage (tilt-and-roll)

Airline passengers rolling their luggage in an airport terminal

Tilt-and-roll luggage or wheeled luggage, is a variant of luggage for travelers which typically contains two-fixed wheels on one end and a telescoping handle on the opposite end for vertical movement. Tilt-and-roll luggage is pulled and thus eliminates a traveler from directly carrying his or her luggage. In 1988, Northwest Airlines pilot Robert Plath invented tilt-and-roll luggage as travelers beforehand had to carry suitcases in their hands, toss garment bags over their shoulders, or strap luggage on top of metal carts.[269][270]

1988 Fused deposition modeling Fused deposition modeling, which is often referred to by its initials FDM, is a type of additive fabrication or technology commonly used within engineering design. FDM works on an "additive" principle by laying down material in layers. Fusion deposition modeling was invented by S. Scott Crump in 1988.[271]

1988 Tcl Tcl, known as "Tool Command Language", is a scripting language most commonly used for rapid prototyping, scripted applications, GUIs and testing. Tcl is used extensively on embedded systems platforms, both in its full form and in several other small-footprinted versions. Tcl is also used for CGI scripting. Tcl was invented in the spring of 1988 by John Ousterhout while working at the University of California, Berkeley.[272]

1988 Ballistic electron emission microscopy Ballistic electron emission microscopy or BEEM is a technique for studying ballistic electron transport through variety of materials and material interfaces. BEEM is a three terminal scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) technique that was co-invented in 1988 at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena California by L. Douglas Bell and William Kaiser.[273]

1988 Electron beam ion trap

1988 Nicotine patch

1988 Firewall

1988 Resin identification code

1989 ZIP file format

1989 Selective laser sintering

1990 Self-wringing mop

1990 Sulfur lamp

1991 Ant robotics

See also


  1. "History of Patent Law". IP Legal Services.
  2. James W. Cortada, "Rise of the knowledge worker, Volume 8 of Resources for the knowledge-based economy", Knowledge Reader Series, Butterworth-Heinemann, 1998, p. 141, ISBN 0-7506-7058-4, ISBN 978-0-7506-7058-6.
  3. "Manufactures of the United States in 1860; compiled from the original returns of the eighth census, under the direction of the Secretary of the interior", Publisher: Government Printing Office, Washington, 1865, p. cxcix: "Salt-making was commenced at Salein in 1636, and in 1641 Samuel Winslow was allowed, for 10 years, the exclusive right of making salt in Massachusetts by a new method."
  4. 1 2 "Chapter 4: An Overview of Patents". Digital Law Online.
  5. "First U.S. Patent Issued Today in 1790". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  6. "2701 Patent Term [R-2]". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  7. "Table of Issue Years and Patent Numbers, for Selected Document Types Issued Since 1836". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  8. 1 2 "The History of the Transistor – John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley". The New York Times Company.
  9. "Kenbak Computer Company: Kenbak-1". Old Computers.com.
  10. 1 2 "Fascinating facts about the invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973". The Great Idea Finder.
  11. 1 2 "Dr. Martin Cooper Engineer, and Inventor of the Mobile Phone". Engology.com.
  12. 1 2 "Hubble Essentials: About Lyman Spitzer, Jr.". Hubble Site.
  13. "Hubble Essentials: Quick Facts". Hubble Site.
  14. "The Hubble Space Telescope". Vic Stathopoulos.
  16. "Earl S. Tupper (1907–1983)". Syracuse University Library.
  17. "People & Events: Earl Silas Tupper (1907–1983)". PBS.
  18. "50 YEARS OF TUPPERWARE". Tupperware.
  19. "A Little Fishing History". Dennis "Sunshine" Skurulsky.
  20. "The History of the Chainsaw". Chainsaw Sculptors.
  21. "1999 Hall of Fame Inductees". New Jersey Inventors Hall of Fame.
  22. Firsts: Origins of Everyday Things That Changed the World. Penguin.
  23. Indian Financial System. Tata McGraw-Hill Education.
  24. Debtor's Dictionary: The American Encyclopedia of Consumer Credit. Wheatmark, Inc.
  25. "Marion Donovan, 81, Solver Of the Damp-Diaper Problem". New York City Times. November 18, 1998.
  26. "November 17 – December 23, 1947: Invention of the First Transistor". American Physical Society.
  27. "The transistor: The 20th century's most important invention". IDG Communications.
  28. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1956".
  29. "History of Defibrillation". ADI Media Private Limited.
  30. "Testing The First Supersonic Aircraft". NASA.
  31. "A History of GOLDEN Artist Colors, Inc.". Golden Artist Colors, Inc.
  32. "The Magnetic Particle Clutch : Jacob Rabinow". National Institute of Standards and Technology.
  33. "A Chronological Order Of The Development Of The Free Sail System Sailboard". The Hart's Homepage.
  34. "Windsurfing was invented 60 years ago by Newman Darby". SurferToday.com.
  35. "The Invention of Cat Litter". Paws Online.
  36. Fire Department, City of New York. Turner Publishing Company.
  37. "Blowing Hot Air? Five Myths About Hand Dryers Debunked" (PDF). Excel Dryer Inc.
  38. "The Genius of Rogallo's Wing". M Robinson.
  39. Gray, Sadie (September 29, 2009). "Francis Rogallo: invented the Rogallo wing". London: The Sunday Times.
  40. "Cable TV: From Community Antennas to Wired Cities". Harvard Business School.
  41. "About Frisbee". Frisbee Disc.
  42. "The First Video Game?". Brookhaven National Laboratory.
  43. "Carbon Dating". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  44. "Fad nauseam". Winnipeg Free Press.
  45. "The Zamboni Story: Ice Resurfacing". Frank J. Zamboni & Co. Inc.
  46. "The "Atomic Age" of Time Standards". National Institute of Standards and Technology.
  47. "What are Holter, Event and Transtelephonic Monitors?". American Heart Association.
  48. "Roswell". Paul V. Galvin Library.
  49. "Evaluation of the Sierra Company Lightweight Helmet" (PDF). Defense Technical Information Center.
  50. Fox, Margalit (February 18, 2005). "Samuel Alderson, Crash-Test Dummy Inventor, Dies at 90". The New York Times.
  51. "Grace Hopper". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  52. "Our Story". Seymour Paint.
  53. Selingo, Jeffrey (February 8, 2001). "Machines Let Resorts Please Skiers When Nature Won't". The New York Times. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
  54. "Leaf Blowers". Portland Leaf Blowers.
  55. "Richard Wesley Hamming". University of St. Andrews.
  56. "Teleprompter inventor Hubert Schlafly dies at 91". British Broadcasting Corporation. April 27, 2011.
  57. "Sengstaken-Blakemore Tube". Medscape.
  58. "Lyman Spitzer: Space telescope pioneer". European Space Agency.
  59. "Portable Ice Chest for Storing Foods". Google Patents.
  60. "Wetsuit's Inventor Dies". Tech Media Network.
  61. "Bette Nesmith Graham". Famous Women Inventors.
  62. Brain imaging: the chemistry of mental activity. Surendra Kumar.
  63. "RADIOACTIVITY-DISTRIBUTION DETECTOR". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  64. "Airbags". Bryant University.
  65. "The History of Airbags". The New York Times Company.
  66. 2 Loaves: One Man's Relentless Pursuit of Truth, Meaning, and a Perfect Crust. Algonquin Books.
  67. "A Short History Of Bar Code". Adams Communications.
  68. "1952: The First Mechanical Heart Pump". General Motors Corporation.
  69. "Artificial Heart". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  70. "Robert Jarvik on the Jarvik-7". Jarvik Heart, Inc.
  71. "Heart-Lung Machine". Invent Now.
  72. "ANDREW F. KAY '40: Building Quality in Computers and Work Flow". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  73. Palm, Kristin (1995). "Marker". CBS Interactive Inc.
  74. ManVentions: From Cruise Control to Cordless Drills – Inventions Men Can't Live Without. Adams Media.
  75. "Dr. Virginia Apgar". National Library of Medicine.
  76. "Gilhoolie Jar Opener". Mechanix Illustrated.
  77. "Happy Birthday Denver Boot!r". The Expired Meter.
  78. "50 Years Of Wiffle Ball". Hearst Communications, Inc.
  79. "Invention of the Maser and Laser". The American Physical Society.
  80. "Appleton, Wis., Inventor, Recalled As Gentle Genius, Dies at 77". All Business.
  81. Eichmeier, Joseph A.; Thumm, Manfred (2008-03-27). Vacuum Electronics: Components and Devices. Springer Books. ISBN 978-3-540-71928-1.
  82. "Zip Loc Bags Information". Zip-Lock-Bags.com.
  83. "The History of TV Dinners". The New York Times Company.
  84. "Acoustic Research AR-2a Loudspeakers". Black Sparrow Photography.
  85. The NSTA ready-reference guide to safer science. NSTA Press.
  86. "A sliding solution to glass-shattering South Texas winds turned into Horton Automatics". Horton Doors.
  87. "Mogen Circumsion". The Mogen Instrument Company.
  88. "History Of CPR". United States Mine Rescue Association.
  89. Gray, Sadie (August 6, 2008). "H. Tracy Hall: physical chemist and inventor". London: UTimes Newspapers Ltd. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
  90. "Decatur Electronics, Inc. Company History". Decatur Electronics, Inc.
  91. "Floor Crane With Adjustable Legs". Google Patent Search.
  92. "Crosby-Kugler capsule". Ole Daniel Enersen.
  93. "USS NAUTILUS (SSN-571)". Sub Guru.
  94. "Reynold Johnson". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  95. "Milestones". Harmonic Drive AG.
  96. "Strain Wave Gearing". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  97. Foner, S. "Versatile and Sensitive Vibrating-Sample Magnetometer". Rev. Sci. Instrum. 30 (7): 548–557. doi:10.1063/1.1716679.
  98. "Lincoln Lab's Foner, 82, and Sandholm, 76". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  99. "Magnetic Test Apparatus". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  100. "Evercare Celebrates 50th Birthday and Golden Anniversary of Its Invention of The Lint Rolle". The Evercare Company.
  101. "Karting's Golden Summer". Crain Communications, Inc.
  102. "George C Devol". Encyclopaedia Britannica.
  103. "History of operating systems". OS Data.
  104. "Fortran". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  105. "Ampex VR1000A video recorder". The Science Museum.
  106. "CRI SES:" (PDF). National Space Society.
  107. "Bobcat Mourns Passing of Skid-Steer Inventor". Bobcat.
  108. "Laser". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  109. Martin, Douglas (May 11, 2007). "Theodore Maiman, 79, Dies; Demonstrated First Laser". The New York Times.
  110. "Memoir on Inventing the Confocal Scanning Microscope". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  111. "Benjamin Eisenstadt, 89, a Sweetener of Lives". The New York Times. April 10, 1996.
  112. "Stevens remembers inventor on 'Bubble Wrap Appreciation Day'". Stevens Institute of Technology.
  113. Saxon, Wolfgang (April 20, 1997). "Robert H. Wentorf Jr., a Chemist, Dies at 70". New York Times. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
  114. Reports, Wire (November 15, 2005). "Hal Anger, 85; Inventor of Gamma Camera Used in Nuclear Medicine". LA Times. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
  115. "Cryotron, a super conductive computer switch revealed". National Center for Science & Technology Communication.
  116. Reclaiming our health: exploding the medical myth and embracing the source of true healing. HJ Kramer.
  117. Fetal heart rate monitoring. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  118. "Ty-Rap Celebrates 50 Years!". THOMAS & BETTS CORPORATION.
  119. "CABLE BUNDLING AND SUPPORTING STRAP". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  120. "50th birthday of Lisp (October 1958)". Artificial Intelligence Research Institute.
  121. "High Performance Carbon Fibers". National Historic Chemical Landmarks. American Chemical Society. Retrieved 2014-02-21.
  122. "Jack Kilby: The Chip that Jack Built". Texas Instruments.
  123. "The Farnsworth/Hirsch Fusor". Jochen Kronjaeger.
  124. "A Complete Picture: Weather Satellites and Contemporary Meteorology" (PDF). National Weather Association.
  125. "The spandex saga". Yale Herald.
  126. "About Guys and Dolls Furniture". Guys and Dolls Furniture.
  127. "Unfant's Seat". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  128. "Artificial Turf". Purchase Green.
  129. 1 2 "CSCI 321- Software Project School of Information Technology & Computer Science" (PDF). University of Wollongong.
  130. "Gregory Pincus, Father of the Pill". Population Reference Bureau.
  131. "Chronological Methods 10 – Obsidian Hydration Dating". University of California, Santa Barbara.
  132. Gray, Sadie (August 6, 2008). "Professor William Bennett: co-inventor of the gas laser". London: The Times. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
  133. {Proc. IEEE, vol.50, 1697, pg. 1697, July 1962}
  134. "A Brief History of Spreadsheets". Decision Support Systems Resources.
  135. "Dan Bricklin, Co-Inventor of the Spreadsheet, Discusses How Nerds Are Like Sports Stars". The New York Observer.
  136. "Edward O. Thorpe". Edward Thorpe.
  137. "Events In Food History". The Nibble.
  138. Nagourney, Eric (April 2, 2002). "Neal E. Miller Is Dead at 92; Studied Brain and Behavior". The New York Times.
  139. "Communications Satellite". National Inventors Hall of Fame Foundation, Inc.
  140. "AUTOMATIC DUMP TYPE CHARCOAL LIGHTER". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  141. "Nick Holonyak". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  142. "Nick Holonyak honored for inventing the LED". LEDs Magazine.
  143. "Nick Holonyak Jr.: 81 Years Old And Still Doing Groundbreaking Research". Electronic Design.
  144. "Electret Microphone Inventor". Famous Black Inventors.
  145. "Campaign to Eradicate". U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  146. "Semiconductor injection laser". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  147. "Diabetes: Glucose Sensors and Drug Delivery" (PDF). McMaster University.
  148. Famous Firsts: The Trendsetters, Groundbreakers and Risk-Takers Who Got America Moving!. Natalie Rompella.
  149. "SKATEBOARD WITH INCLINED FOOT-DEPRESSIBLE". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  150. "1963: Douglas Engelbart Invents the Mouse". University of California at Berkeley.
  151. "John G. Kemeny: BASIC and DTSS: Everyone a Programmer". Columbia Univ.
  152. "The History of the Catheter". The New York Times Company.
  153. "Geosynchronous Satellite". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  154. Suddath, Claire (September 3, 2009). "Buffalo WIngs". Time Magazine. Retrieved April 30, 2011.
  155. "Dr. Donald Bitzer Co-Inventor, Plasma Display". Consumer Electronics Association.
  156. "H. Gene Slottow Co-inventor, Plasma Display". Consumer Electronics Association.
  157. "THE MOOG SYNTHESIZER". Rewind the Fifties.
  158. "Audio, automotive and aircraft apparatus". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  159. "Ruth Benerito". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  160. "The 60s – the technology, science, and inventions". The New York Times Company.
  161. "Continuous-Wave Laser Action on Vibrational-Rotational Transitions of CO2". Physics Review Online Archive.
  162. "Liquid Crystal Display Dynamic Scattering Method". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  163. "Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices(SQUIDS)" (PDF). Ben-Gurion University of Negev.
  164. "6.1.4 Argon Ion (Ar+) Gas Laser". Kansas State University.
  165. 1 2 "Electronics Timeline". National Academy of Engineering.
  166. "THE HISTORY OF SNOWBOARDING". Bulgarian Ski.
  167. "Inventor of Kevlar". Famous Women Inventors.
  168. "Visionary lays into the web". BBC News. October 8, 2001. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
  169. "'Giving women tech know-how'". BBC News. November 3, 2006. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
  170. "History of the Fisher Space Pen". Allwrite B.V.
  171. "DEC PDP-8 minicomputer". UvA Computer Museum.
  172. "The Little-known Story Of Optical Digital Storage". Northwest Science and Technology.
  173. Bet you didn't know Jim Russell '53 pioneered compact disc technology. Reed College.
  174. Inventors and Inventions. Marshall Cavendish. September 2007.
  175. Milestones in computer science and information technology. Greenwood Publishing Group.
  176. "Inventor of the Week Archive: The Digital Compact Disc". Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Archived from the original on April 17, 2003.
  177. "Previous Recipients of the George R. Stibitz and Edward O. Wilson Awards (1997–2009)". American Computer Museum.
  178. Bet you didn't know Jim Russell '53 pioneered compact disc technology. Reed College.
  179. Inventors and Inventions. Marshall Cavendish. September 2007.
  180. "6.1.9 Chemical Laser". Kansas State University.
  181. "DRAM". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  182. Harman, G., Wire Bonding In Microelectronics, McGraw-Hill, Ch. 2, p. 36
  183. Coucoulas, A. (1966) "Ultrasonic Welding of Aluminum Leads to Tantalum Thin Films", Trans. Metallurgical Society Of AIME, pp. 587–589.
  184. Coucoulas, Alexander (1970) Hot Work Ultrasonic (Thermosonic) Bonding, Proceedings 1970 20th Electronic Components Conference, pp. 549–556.
  185. "Innovations". Lowepro.
  186. "Calculator History- Invention of the Hand-held Calculator". The Great Idea Finder.
  187. "The History of Racquetball". USA Racquetball.
  188. "A Brief History of Virtual Reality". University of Calgary.
  189. "Virtual Reality: A Short Introduction". www-VRL.
  190. "The Georgia Jumper" (PDF). The University of Georgia.
  191. "Zipper". Amusement Ride Extravaganza.
  192. Saslow, Linda (July 18, 1999). "..The Man Whose Stuff Is Still on the Moon". The NEw York Times.
  193. "Father of the Lunar Module Thomas Kelly Dies". Space.com.
  194. Geringer, Richard. "White Papers: Magnetic Locks" (PDF). SDC Security. Retrieved 8 October 2015.
  195. "Gary Starkweather – Laser Printer Inventor". United Business Media LLC.
  196. "Medicine and Materials" (PDF). UK Dept. for Business, Enterprise & Regulatory Reform.
  197. "Father knows best". Boeing Commercial Airplanes.
  198. "History of TASER Devices". TASER International, Inc.
  199. "Willard Boyle and George Smith". Rochester Institute of Technology.
  200. "Jack Kelley". Herman Miller.
  201. "Stick Method". Stick Enterprises, Inc.
  202. Encyclopedia of New Media: An Essential Reference to Communication and Technology. The Moshovitis Group. 2003. ISBN 978-0-7619-2382-4.
  203. "IEEE History Center: Norman Abramson". IEEE.
  204. The Encyclopedia of Surfing. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.
  205. Timeless toys: classic toys and the playmakers who created them. Andrews McMeel Publishing.
  206. 1 2 "Timeline of Computer History". Computer History Museum.
  207. Transforming Global Information and Communication Markets: The Political Economy of Innovation. MIT Press. p. 270.
  208. "The Fuzzball". David L. Mills.
  209. "Supercritical Airfoil". Century of Flight.
  210. "25th Anniversary for Microprocessor". Toronto Star.
  211. "1971: IBM fashions the floppy". CNN. June 17, 1999. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
  212. Hevesi, Dennis (July 1, 2011). "George Ballas, Inventor of the Weed Whacker, Dies at 85". The New York Times.
  213. Bebop to the boolean boogie: an unconventional guide to electronics. Newnes.
  214. "A Conversation With The Inventor Of Email". Jupitermedia Corporation.
  215. "C – the Programming Language". BBC h2g2.
  216. "Magnavox Odyssey First home video game console". David Winter.
  217. "GPS" (PDF). ACSM Congress.
  218. Fundamentals of global positioning system receivers: a software approach. John Wiley and Sons.
  219. "Edward J. Hoffman, UCLA Professor and Co-Inventor of the PET Scanner, Dies at 62". UCLA.
  220. "Apparatus And Method For Detectin Cancer In Tissue". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  221. "First MRI and ultrasound scanning". Benjamin S. Beck.
  222. "The "Indomitable" MRI". Smithsonian Institution.
  223. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2003". Nobel Media AB.
  224. "The History, Development and Impact of Computed Imaging in Neurological Diagnosis and Neurosurgery: CT, MRI, and DTI". Internet Scientific Publications, LLC.
  225. "PERSONAL WATERCRAFT". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  226. "E-paper History: An Interview with Nick Sheridon, Father of E-paper". The Future of Things.
  227. "Stan Cohen and Herb Boyer "invented" recombinant DNA technology". DNA Learning Center.
  228. Gray, Sadie (November 21, 2008). "Carl Keith: Research chemist who co-invented the catalytic converter". London: The Times. Retrieved March 26, 2010.
  229. "Tech Talk: Where'd it Come From, Anyway?". PC World.
  230. "Inventor of cell phone: We knew someday everybody would have one". CNN.
  231. "Human Factors Challenges In Creating a Principal Support Office System The Speech Filing System Approach" (PDF). IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center.
  232. "Heimlich Institute". Heimlich Institute.
  233. "Fascinating facts about the invention of Post-it Notes by Arthur Fry and Spencer Silver in 1974". The Great Idea Finder.
  234. Johnston RN, Atalar A, Heiserman J, Jipson V, Quate CF (July 1979). "Acoustic microscopy: resolution of subcellular detail". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 76 (7): 3325–9. Bibcode:1979PNAS...76.3325J. doi:10.1073/pnas.76.7.3325. PMC 383818Freely accessible. PMID 291006.
  235. "1999 IEEE Jack A. Morton Award". IEEE.
  236. "June 26, 1974: By Gum! There's a New Way to Buy Gum". CondéNet, Inc. June 26, 2008.
  237. The Visual Dictionary of Photography. AVA Publishing.
  238. "Steven Sasson named to CE Hall of Fame". Let's Go Digital.
  239. "Ethernet". University of Aberdeen.
  240. "Arthur Ehrat Papers". Smithsonian Institution.
  241. "GORE-TEX". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  242. "Flying Higher and Quieter". Progressive Engineer.
  243. "Industrialization of the chemical oxygen-iodine laser". Harvard University.
  244. "Knock-down sofa bed with hinged mattress". Google PAtents Search.
  245. "Packaged food item and method for achieving microwave browning thereof". Google Patents Search.
  246. "Smart Computing Encyclopedia". Sandhills Publishing Company.
  247. "Winglets". NASA.
  248. "Polar Fleece". Stitch n Save.
  249. "Control-Alt-Delete". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
  250. "Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence for Single Molecule Studies" (PDF). University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
  251. "The Space Shuttle's First Flight: STS-1". NASA.
  252. "Splat attack". BBC.
  253. "A History of the GUI". Condé Nast Digital, Inc.
  254. "Paul Baran Invents Packet Switching". Living Internet.
  255. "UCLA's Leonard Kleinrock to receive National Medal of Science". University of California.
  256. "ARPANET". Timeline of Innovations. SRI International. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  257. "Computing History, 1981–1985: The Internet" (PDF). Computing Networking Services.
  258. "A Brief History of the Internet". University System of Georgia.
  259. "Digital Cash" (PDF). University of Birmingham.
  260. "Lasers Gove New Life to Old LP's". Reed Business Information. 1988-02-18.
  261. "Milestones". InfoComm International.
  262. Pressure Sensitive User Interface WithAffective Measurement (PDF). New York University.
  263. "Kary Mullis – biography". KaryMullis.com. Archived from the original on January 19, 2008.
  264. Methods in Modern Biophysics. Springer.
  265. "Coarse approach positioning device". United States Patent and Trademark Office.
  266. "Introduction to StereoLithography Apparatus (SLA)". Rapid Product Development Resource Centre.
  267. "Digital micromirror device – DMD". National Inventors Hall of Fame.
  268. "Beginner's Introduction to Perl(part 1)". Perl.com.
  269. Horovitz, Bruce (February 19, 2003). "Success stunned pilot inventor". USA Today.
  270. Horovitz, Bruce (February 18, 2003). "Taking the 'lug' out of luggage changed everything". USA Today.
  271. "Highlights of Fused Deposition Modeling". Engineering Fundamentals.
  272. "History of Tcl". John Ousterhout.
  273. "Ballistic-electron-emission microscopy: A nanometer-scale probe of interfaces and carrier transport". University of Pennsylvania.
  274. "EBIT – The Electron Beam Ion Trap". Livermore Berkeley National Laboratory.
  275. Weber, Bruce (May 13, 2008). "Murray Jarvik, 84, Whose Research Helped Lead to Nicotine Patch, Dies". New York Times. Retrieved May 25, 2010.
  276. "One Size Does Not Fit All: Tailoring Protection with Data Proximate Security". Techworld.
  277. "SPI Resin Identification Code – Guide to Correct Use". Society of the Plastics Industry.
  278. "Philip K. Katz". Biographies Pioneers of computing A-J.
  279. "US Patent 5053090 – Selective laser sintering with assisted powder handling". Patent Storm.
  280. "Joy Mangano". Biography. FYI. Retrieved December 28, 2015.
  281. "Joy Mangano". Oliver Willis.
  282. "20th Century Inventors: Sulfur Lamp". Smithsonian Institution.
  283. "James McLurkin". Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

Further reading

External links

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 10/7/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.