(by ancestry, 2011 Census))
|Regions with significant populations|
|Toronto, Vancouver, Hamilton, Montreal|
|Latvian, Canadian English|
|Lutheran, Roman Catholic and Protestant|
|Related ethnic groups|
Although by 1921 the Canadian government considered all persons from the Soviet Union to be Russians, it is known that there were some Latvians living in Canada in those years, because in 1961, 379 Latvian indicated that they had arrived in Canada prior to 1921, and most probably left Latvia after the 1905 Revolution. Between 1921 and 1945, 409 Latvians arrived to Canada, although in the 1941 census listed 975 people claimed Latvian origin. After the Second World War in 1947, many Latvians came to Canada as war refugees. This migration, which accounted for 92% of Latvians who immigrated to the country between 1921 and 1965, ended in 1957. Many of these Latvians worked in the agricultural areas during their first years in Canada, but soon settled in cities. By 1961, only 10% of those immigrants lived in rural zones and farms (6% in rural areas and 4% on farms). The majority of Latvian immigrants in Canada in 1991 were women, 775 more women than men.
Although before 1939, 78 percent of Latvians lived in the three prairie provinces, and only 12 percent in Ontario, since 1945 over 70 percent of Latvians live in Ontario and only about 10 percent in Quebec, while the prairie provinces have only had 11 percent of new Latvian immigrants. By 1991, 20,445 persons indicated they were of Latvian descent, most of them living in the capital, 14 percent in the prairie provinces, 12 percent in British Columbia, 5.9 percent in Quebec, and 1.8 percent in the Atlantic region.
Most Latvian Canadians are Christians: close to 90 percent are Lutheran, 10 percent Roman Catholic, and 1 percent Baptist. The organization of Lutheran congregations in Canada is in regional dioceses, which belong to the Lutheran Evangelical Church in Exile. In 1970 there were 1,400 Latvian-Canadian Roman Catholics. On a parish basis they are connected to the larger Roman Catholic Church in Canada. In the Toronto archdiocese is The Association of Canadian Latvian Catholics, founded in 1949. On the other hand, Latvian Baptists are much less numerous in Canada: only 200. However they have a very active congregation in Toronto.
Notable Latvian Canadians
- Harry Adaskin, violinist, academic, and radio broadcaster
- Murray Adaskin, violinist, composer, conductor and teacher
- David Bezmozgis, writer and filmmaker
- Fred Bruemmer, nature photographer and researcher
- Sarmite Bulte, lawyer, advocate and politician
- Sylvia Burka, ice speed skater
- Dzintars Cers, radio presenter and musician
- Ludmilla Chiriaeff, ballet dancer, choreographer, teacher, and company director
- Kārlis Irbītis, aeroplane designer
- Henriette Ivanans, actress
- Miervaldis Jurševskis, chess master
- Jānis Kalniņš, composer and conductor
- Andrew Podnieks, author and ice hockey historian
- Imants Kārlis Ramiņš, composer, best known for his choral compositions
- Leo Rautins, former professional basketball player, the former head coach of the Canadian national men's basketball team
- Signe Ronka, figure skater
- Haralds Šnepsts, professional ice hockey player
- Ksenia Solo, actress and former ballet dancer
- Katie Stelmanis, musician
- Pēteris Tabūns, politician
- Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga, professor and interdisciplinary scholar at the University of Montreal; the sixth President of Latvia
- http://multiculturalcanada.ca/Encyclopedia/A-Z/l3/2 Multicultural Canada: Migration, Arrival, and Settlement. Retrieved January 05, 2012
- http://multiculturalcanada.ca/Encyclopedia/A-Z/l3/7 Multicultural Canada: Religion.