Catherine of Siena
|Saint Catherine of Siena|
St. Catherine of Siena,
by anonymous painter, 19th century
|Virgin; Doctor of Church|
March 25, 1347|
Siena, Republic of Siena
April 29, 1380 33) (aged|
Rome, Papal States
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church; Anglican Communion; Lutheranism|
|Canonized||29 June 1461 by Pope Pius II|
|Feast||April 29; April 30 (Roman Calendar, 1628–1969)|
|Attributes||Dominican tertiaries' habit, lily, book, crucifix, heart, crown of thorns, stigmata, ring, dove, rose, skull, miniature church, miniature ship bearing Papal coat of arms|
|Patronage||against fire, bodily ills, diocese of Allentown, Pennsylvania, USA, Europe, illness, Italy, miscarriages, people ridiculed for their piety, sexual temptation, sick people, sickness, nurses|
Saint Catherine of Siena, T.O.S.D. (March 25, 1347 in Siena – April 29, 1380 in Rome), was a tertiary of the Dominican Order and a Scholastic philosopher and theologian. She also worked to bring the papacy of Gregory XI back to Rome from its displacement in France and to establish peace among the Italian city-states. She is believed in Catholicism to have had miraculous visions and felt herself to be united in marriage with Jesus, stating in her letters that she wore the wedding ring he gave her but that it was invisible.
Since 18 June 1939, Catherine of Siena has been one of the two patron saints of Italy, together with St. Francis of Assisi. On 3 October 1970, she was proclaimed a Doctor of the Church by Pope Paul VI, and on 1 October 1999, Pope John Paul II named her as one of the six patron saints of Europe, together with Benedict of Nursia, Saints Cyril and Methodius, Bridget of Sweden and Edith Stein.
Caterina di Giacomo di Benincasa was born on 25 March 1347 in Black Death-ravaged Siena, Italy, to Giacomo di Benincasa, a cloth dyer who ran his enterprise with the help of his sons, and Lapa Piagenti, the daughter of a local poet. The house where Catherine grew up is still in existence. Lapa was about forty years old when she prematurely gave birth to twin daughters, Catherine and Giovanna. She had already borne 22 children, but half of them had died. Giovanna was handed over to a wet-nurse and presently died. Catherine was nursed by her mother and developed into a healthy child. She was two years old when Lapa had her 25th child, another daughter named Giovanna. As a child Catherine was so merry that the family gave her the pet name of "Euphrosyne", which is Greek for "joy" and the name of an early Christian saint.
Catherine is said by her confessor and biographer Raymond of Capua O.P.'s Life to have had her first vision of Christ when she was the age of five or six. With her brother, she was on the way home from a visit to a married sister and is said to have experienced a vision of Christ seated in glory with the Apostles Peter, Paul, and John. Raymond continues that at age seven, Catherine vowed to give her whole life to God.
Her older sister Bonaventura died in childbirth. While tormented with sorrow, sixteen-year-old Catherine was now faced with her parents' wish that she marry Bonaventura's widower. Absolutely opposed to this, she started a massive fast, something she had learnt from Bonaventura, whose husband had not been considerate in the least. Bonaventura had changed her husband's attitude by refusing to eat until he showed better manners. This had taught Catherine the power of fasting. She disappointed her mother by cutting off her long hair as a protest against being overly encouraged to improve her appearance to attract a husband.
Catherine would later advise Raymond of Capua to do during times of trouble what she did now as a teenager: "Build a cell inside your mind, from which you can never flee." In this inner cell she made her father into a representation of Christ, her mother Lapa into the Blessed Virgin Mary, and her brothers into the apostles. Serving them humbly became an opportunity for spiritual growth. Catherine resisted the accepted course of marriage and motherhood, on the one hand, or a nun's veil, on the other. She chose to live an active and prayerful life outside a convent’s walls following the model of the Dominicans. Eventually her father gave up and permitted her to live as she pleased.
A vision of St. Dominic gave strength to Catherine, but her wish to join his Order was no comfort to Lapa, who took her daughter with her to the baths in Bagno Vignoni to improve her health. Catherine fell seriously ill with a violent rash, fever and pain, which conveniently made her mother accept her wish to join the "Mantellate", the local association of Dominican tertiaries. Lapa went to the Sisters of the Order and persuaded them to take in her daughter. Within days, Catherine seemed entirely restored, rose from bed and donned the black and white habit of the Third Order of St. Dominic. Catherine received the habit of a Dominican tertiary from the friars of the Order after vigorous protests from the tertiaries themselves, who up to that point had been only widows. As a tertiary, she lived outside the convent, at home with her family like before. The Mantellate taught Catherine how to read, and she lived in almost total silence and solitude in the family home.
Her custom of giving away clothing and food without asking anyone's permission cost her family significantly, but she demanded nothing for herself. By staying in their midst, she could live out her rejection of them more strongly. She did not want their food, referring to the table laid for her in Heaven with her real family.
In about 1368, age twenty-one, Catherine experienced what she described in her letters as a "Mystical Marriage" with Jesus, later a popular subject in art as the Mystic marriage of Saint Catherine. Caroline Walker Bynum explains one surprising and controversial aspect of this marriage that occurs both in artistic representations of the event and in some early accounts of her life: "Underlining the extent to which the marriage was a fusion with Christ's physicality [...] Catherine received, not the ring of gold and jewels that her biographer reports in his bowdlerized version, but the ring of Christ's foreskin." Catherine herself mentions the foreskin-as-wedding ring motif in one of her letters (#221), equating the wedding ring of a virgin with a foreskin; she typically claimed that her own wedding ring to Christ was simply invisible. Raymond also records that she was told by Christ to leave her withdrawn life and enter the public life of the world. Catherine rejoined her family and began helping the ill and the poor, where she took care of them in hospitals or homes. Her early pious activities in Siena attracted a group of followers, women and men, who gathered around her.
As social and political tensions mounted in Siena, Catherine found herself drawn to intervene in wider politics. She made her first journey to Florence in 1374, probably to be interviewed by the Dominican authorities at the General Chapter held in Florence in May 1374, though this is controverted (if she was interviewed, then the absence of later evidence suggests she was deemed sufficiently orthodox). It seems that at this time she acquired Raymond of Capua as her confessor and spiritual director.
After this visit, she began travelling with her followers throughout northern and central Italy advocating reform of the clergy and advising people that repentance and renewal could be done through "the total love for God." In Pisa, in 1375, she used what influence she had to sway that city and Lucca away from alliance with the anti-papal league whose force was gaining momentum and strength. She also lent her enthusiasm towards promoting the launch of a new crusade. It was in Pisa in 1375 that, according to Raymond of Capua's biography, she received the stigmata (visible, at Catherine's request, only to herself).
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Physical travel was not the only way in which Catherine made her views known. From 1375 onwards, she began dictating letters to scribes. These letters were intended to reach men and women of her circle, increasingly widening her audience to include figures in authority as she begged for peace between the republics and principalities of Italy and for the return of the Papacy from Avignon to Rome. She carried on a long correspondence with Pope Gregory XI, asking him to reform the clergy and the administration of the Papal States.
Towards the end of 1375, she returned to Siena, to assist a young political prisoner, Niccolò di Tuldo, at his execution. In June 1376 Catherine went to Avignon as ambassador of the Republic of Florence to make peace with the Papal States (on 31 March 1376 Gregory XI had placed Florence under interdict). She was unsuccessful and was disowned by the Florentine leaders, who sent ambassadors to negotiate on their own terms as soon as Catherine's work had paved the way for them. Catherine sent an appropriately scorching letter back to Florence in response. While in Avignon, Catherine also tried to convince Pope Gregory XI to return to Rome. Gregory did indeed return his administration to Rome in January 1377; to what extent this was due to Catherine’s influence is a topic of much modern debate.
Catherine returned to Siena and spent the early months of 1377 founding a women's monastery of strict observance outside the city in the old fortress of Belcaro. She spent the rest of 1377 at Rocca d'Orcia, about twenty miles from Siena, on a local mission of peace-making and preaching. During this period, in autumn 1377, she had the experience which led to the writing of her Dialogue and learned to write, although she still seems to have chiefly relied upon her secretaries for her correspondence.
Late in 1377 or early in 1378 Catherine again travelled to Florence, at the order of Gregory XI, to seek peace between Florence and Rome. Following Gregory's death in March 1378 riots, the revolts of the Ciompi, broke out in Florence on 18 June, and in the ensuing violence she was nearly assassinated. Eventually, in July 1378, peace was agreed between Florence and Rome; Catherine returned quietly to Florence.
In late November 1378, with the outbreak of the Western Schism, the new Pope, Urban VI, summoned her to Rome. She stayed at Pope Urban VI's court and tried to convince nobles and cardinals of his legitimacy, both meeting with individuals at court and writing letters to persuade others.
For many years she had accustomed herself to a rigorous abstinence. She received the Holy Eucharist almost daily. This extreme fasting appeared unhealthy in the eyes of the clergy and her own sisterhood. Her confessor, Blessed Raymond, ordered her to eat properly. But Catherine claimed that she was unable to, describing her inability to eat as an infermità (illness). From the beginning of 1380, Catherine could neither eat nor swallow water. On February 26 she lost the use of her legs.
Sources of her life
There is some internal evidence of Catherine's personality, teaching and work in her nearly four hundred letters, her Dialogue, and her prayers.
Much detail about her life has also, however, been drawn from the various sources written shortly after her death in order to promote her cult and canonisation. Though much of this material is heavily hagiographic, it has been an important source for historians seeking to reconstruct Catherine's life. Various sources are particularly important, especially the works of Raymond of Capua, who was Catherine's spiritual director and close friend from 1374 until her death, and himself became Master General of the Order in 1380. Raymond began writing what is known as the Legenda Major, his Life of Catherine, in 1384, and completed it in 1395.
Another important work written after Catherine's death was Libellus de Supplemento (Little Supplement Book), written between 1412 and 1418 by Tommaso d'Antonio Nacci da Siena (commonly called Thomas of Siena, or Tommaso Caffarini): the work is an expansion of Raymond's Legenda Major making heavy use of the notes of Catherine's first confessor, Tommaso della Fonte (notes that do not survive anywhere else). Caffarini later published a more compact account of Catherine's life, entitled the Legenda Minor.
From 1411 onwards, Caffarini also co-ordinated the compiling of the Processus of Venice, the set of documents submitted as part of the process of canonisation of Catherine, which provides testimony from nearly all of Catherine's disciples. There is also an anonymous piece entitled "Miracoli della Beata Caterina" (Miracle of Blessed Catherine), written by an anonymous Florentine. A few other relevant pieces survive.
Three genres of work by Catherine survive:
- Her major treatise is The Dialogue of Divine Providence. This was probably begun in October 1377, and was certainly finished by November 1378. Contemporaries of Catherine are united in asserting that much of the book was dictated while Catherine was in ecstasy, though it also seems possible that Catherine herself may then have re-edited many passages in the book. It is a dialogue between a soul who "rises up" to God and God himself.
- Catherine's letters are considered one of the great works of early Tuscan literature. Many of these were dictated, although she herself learned to write in 1377; more than 300 have survived. In her letters to the Pope, she often referred to him affectionately simply as Papa ("Pope"), instead of the formal form of address as "Holiness". Other correspondents include her various confessors, among them Raymond of Capua, the kings of France and Hungary, the infamous mercenary John Hawkwood, the Queen of Naples, members of the Visconti family of Milan, and numerous religious figures. Approximately one third of her letters are to women.
- 26 prayers of Catherine of Siena also survive, mostly composed in the last eighteen months of her life.
She was buried in the (Roman) cemetery of Santa Maria sopra Minerva which lies near the Pantheon. After miracles were reported to take place at her grave, Raymond moved her inside the Basilica of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, where she lies to this day.
Her head however, was parted from her body and inserted in a gilt bust of bronze. This bust was later taken to Siena, and carried through that city in a procession to the Dominican church. Behind the bust walked Lapa, Catherine's mother, who lived until she was 89 years old. By then she had seen the end of the wealth and the happiness of her family, and followed most of her children and several of her grandchildren to the grave. She helped Raymond of Capua write his biography of her daughter, and said, "I think God has laid my soul athwart in my body, so that it can't get out." The incorruptible head and thumb were entombed in the Basilica of San Domenico at Siena, where they remain.
On 3 October 1970, Pope Paul VI named Catherine a Doctor of the Church; this title was almost simultaneously given to Saint Teresa of Ávila (27 September 1970), making them the first women to receive this honour.
Initially however, her feast day was not included in the General Roman Calendar. When it was added in 1597, it was put on the day of her death, April 29; however, because this conflicted with the feast of Saint Peter of Verona which also fell on the 29th of April, Catherine's feast day was moved in 1628 to the new date of April 30. In the 1969 revision of the calendar, it was decided to leave the celebration of the feast of St Peter of Verona to local calendars, because he was not as well known worldwide, and Saint Catherine's feast was restored to its traditional date of April 29.
In his decree of 13 April 1866, Pope Pius IX declared Catherine of Siena to be a co-patroness of Rome. On 18 June 1939 Pope Pius XII named her a joint Patron Saint of Italy along with Saint Francis of Assisi.
On 1 October 1999, Pope John Paul II made her one of Europe's patron saints, along with Edith Stein and Bridget of Sweden. She is also the patroness of the historically Catholic American woman's fraternity, Theta Phi Alpha.
The people of Siena wished to have St. Catherine's body. A story is told of a miracle whereby they were partially successful: knowing that they could not smuggle her whole body out of Rome, they decided to take only her head which they placed in a bag. When stopped by the Roman guards, they prayed to St Catherine to help them, confident that she would rather have her body (or at least part thereof) in Siena. When they opened the bag to show the guards, it appeared no longer to hold her head but to be full of rose petals. Once back at Siena, as they reopened the bag her head was visible once more. Due to this story, St Catherine is often seen holding a rose.
Catherine ranks high among the mystics and spiritual writers of the Church. She remains a greatly respected figure for her spiritual writings, and political boldness to "speak truth to power"— it being exceptional for a woman, in her time period, to have had such influence in politics and on world history.
- Michele de Meo, "Catherine of Siena, Patroness of Europe," 2003, Chapel of St. James, Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva
- Domenico Beccafumi, "The Miraculous Communion of St. Catherine of Siena," circa 1513-1515, Getty Center, Los Angeles, California
- Domenico Beccafumi, "St. Catherine of Siena Receiving the Stigmata," circa 1513-1515, Getty Center, Los Angeles, California
- "The Virgin Mary Giving the Rosary to St. Dominic and St. Catherine of Siena," Church of Santa Agata in Trastevere, Rome (Bottom of painting: the souls in Purgatory await the prayers of the faithful)
- GB Tiepolo, "Saint Catherine of Siena", circa 1746, Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna. Austria
- Giovanni di Paolo, "St. Catherine of Siena", c. 1475, oil on tempera. Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, England.
- "St Catherine and the Demons" by an unknown artist, c. 1500, tempera on panel. National Museum, Warsaw.
- "The office of the taxcollector (biccherna) of Siena" by an unknown artist, 1451 - 1452, Rijksmuseum Amsterdam
- This painting depicts the Virgin giving the rosary to St. Dominic; in the scene also appear Fray Pedro de Santa María Ulloa, Saint Catherine of Siena and Servant of God, Mary of Jesus de León y Delgado. The fresco is located in the Church of Santo Domingo in San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain.
- "St Catherine's mystic communion" by Francesco Brizzi
- The head exposed in the Basilica of San Domenico, Siena
- Blessed Raymond of Capua, The Life of St. Catherine of Siena, tr. George Lamb (Rockford, Illinois: TAN Books, 2003)
- Catherine of Siena, The Dialogue, trans. Suzanne Noffke (Paulist Press, New York, 1980) ISBN 0-8091-2233-2
- Hollister, Warren C. and Bennett, Judith M. Medieval Europe: A Short History, 9th ed. (McGraw-Hill Companies Inc, Boston, 2002)
- Skårderud, Finn. Holy anorexia: Catherine of Siena (Tidsskrift for norsk psykologforening, Oslo, 2008)
Modern editions and English translations
- The Italian critical edition of the Dialogue is Catherine of Siena, Il Dialogo della divina Provvidenza: ovvero Libro della divina dottrina, 2nd ed., ed. Giuliana Cavallini (Siena: Cantagalli, 1995). [1st edn, 1968] [Cavallini demonstrated that the standard division of the Dialogue in into four treatises entitled the 'Treatise on Discretion', 'On Prayer', 'On Providence', and 'On Obedience', was in fact a result of a misreading of the text in the 1579 edition of the Dialogue. Modern editors and translators, including Noffke (1980), have followed Cavallini in rejecting this fourfold division.]
- The Italian critical edition of the 26 Prayers is Catherine of Siena, Le Orazioni, ed. Giuliana Cavallini (Rome: Cateriniane, 1978)
- The most recent Italian critical edition of the Letters is Antonio Volpato, ed, Le lettere di Santa Caterina da Siena: l'edizione di Eugenio Duprè Theseider e i nuovi problemi, (2002)
English translations of The Dialogue include:
- The Dialogue, trans. Suzanne Noffke, O.P. Paulist Press (Classics of Western Spirituality), 1980.
- The Dialogue of St. Catherine of Siena, TAN Books, 2009. ISBN 978-0-89555-149-8
- Phyllis Hodgson and Gabriel M Liegey, eds., The Orcherd of Syon, (London; New York: Oxford UP, 1966) [A Middle English translation of the Dialogo from the early fifteenth century, first printed in 1519].
The Letters are translated into English as:
- Catherine of Siena (1988). Suzanne Noffke, ed. The Letters of St. Catherine of Siena. 4. Binghamton: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, State University of New York at Binghamton. ISBN 0-86698-036-9. [Republished as The letters of Catherine of Siena, 4 vols, trans Suzanne Noffke, (Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2000–2008))
The Prayers are translated into English as:
- The Prayers of Catherine of Siena, trans. Suzanne Noffke, 2nd edn 1983, (New York, 2001)
Raymond of Capua's Life was translated into English in 1493 and 1609, and in Modern English is translated as:
- Raymond of Capua (1980). Conleth Kearns, ed. The Life of Catherine of Siena. Wilmington: Glazier. ISBN 0-89453-151-4.
- Cross, F. L., ed. (2016). The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. London: Oxford U. P. p. . 251. ISBN 978-0-192-11655-0.
- Emling, Shelley (2016). Setting the World on Fire: The Brief, Astonishing Life of St. Catherine of Siena. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 978-1-137-27980-4.
- Girolamo Gigli, ed., L'opere di Santa Caterina da Siena, 4 vols, (Siena e Lucca, 1707–1721)
- Hollister, Warren; Judith Bennett (2001). Medieval Europe: A Short History (9 ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Companies Inc. p. 343. ISBN 0-07-234657-4.
- Faure, Gabriel (1918). Au pays de sainte Catherine de Sienne. Grenoble: J. Rey. OCLC 9435948.
- McDermott, Thomas, O.P. (2008). Catherine of Siena: spiritual development in her life and teaching. New York: Paulist Press. ISBN 0-8091-4547-2.
- Carolyn Muessig, George Ferzoco, and Beverly Mayne Kienzle, eds., A Companion to Catherine of Siena, (Leiden: Brill, 2012), ISBN 978-90-04-20555-0 / ISBN 978-90-04-22542-8.
- Biblioteca Comunale degli Intronati
- Flying Saints
- Mystical marriage of Saint Catherine
- Order of Preachers
- War of the Eight Saints
- Churches dedicated to Catherine of Siena
- Constance Classen (2012). The Deepest Sense: A Cultural History of Touch. University of Illinois Press. pp. 86–87. ISBN 978-0-252-09440-8.
- Bynum, Caroline Walker (1987). Holy Feast and Holy Fast. The Religious Significance of Food to Medieval Women. University of California Press. p. 246. ISBN 978-0-520-06329-7. ISBN 0-52006329-5.
- Andrew S. Jacobs (2012). Christ Circumcised: A Study in Early Christian History and Difference. University of Pennsylvania Press. pp. 192 footnote 6. ISBN 0-8122-0651-7.
- (Italian) Pope Pius XII. Pontifical Brief
- Proclamation of the Co-Patronesses of Europe, Apostolic Letter, 1 October 1999 Archived November 20, 2014, at the Wayback Machine..
- Liturgical Feast of St. Bridget, Homily, 13 November 1999. Archived March 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- "St. Catherine of Siena". newadvent.org. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
- Skårderud, p.411.
- Lives of Saints, John J. Crawley & Co., Inc.
- Raymond of Capua, Legenda Major I, iii.
- Foley O.F.M., Leonard. Saint of the Day, Lives, Lessons, and Feast, (revised by Pat McCloskey O.F.M.), Franciscan Media, ISBN 978-0-86716-887-7
- Bellitto, Christopher M., "10 Great Catholics of the Second Millennium", St. Anthony Messenger
- Catherine of Siena. Available Means. Ed. Joy Ritchie and Kate Ronald. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001. Print.
- Skårderud, pp. 412–413.
- Raymond of Capua, Life, pp. 99–101.
- Manseau, Peter (2009). Rag and Bone. A Journey Among the World's Holy Dead. London: Macmillan. ISBN 978-142993-665-1.
Some [nuns], most famously Saint Catherine of Siena, imagined wearing the foreskin as a wedding ring.
- Jacobs, Andrew (2012). Christ Circumcised: A Study in Early Christian History and Difference. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 192. Retrieved 22 October 2015.
- Raymond of Capua, Life, pp. 105–107.
- Noffke, p. 5.
- Hollister, p. 342.
- Letter T273, written by Catherine to Raymond, probably in June 1375, describes the event.
- Letter 234 in Tommaseo's numbering.
- Hollister, p. 343.
- See Bernard McGinn, The Varieties of Vernacular Mysticism, (Herder & Herder, 2012), p561.
- Noffke, p. 6.
- This experience is recorded in Letter 272, written to Raymond in October 1377.
- Butler, Alban. The Lives or the Fathers, Martyrs and Other Principal Saints, Vol. IV, D. & J. Sadlier, & Company, (1864)
- Farmer, David Hugh (1997). The Oxford dictionary of saints (4. ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. p. 93. ISBN 0-19-280058-2.
- Noffke, p. 2.
- Noffke, p. 13.
- "Catherine of Siena". findagrave.com. Retrieved 1 December 2010.
- Skårderud, Finn (2008). "Hellig anoreksi Sult og selvskade som religiøse praksiser. Caterina av Siena (1347–80)". Tidsskrift for norsk psykologforening (in Norwegian). 45 (4): 408–420. Retrieved 12 May 2013.
«Jeg tror at Gud har gjort det slik at sjelen ligger på tvers i kroppen min og ikke kan komme ut.»
- Beckwith, Barbara. "St. Catherine of Siena: A Feisty Role for Sister Nancy Murray", St. Anthony Messenger
- "Calendarium Romanum" (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), p. 91.
- Calendarium Romanum. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 1969. p. 121.
- Works by Catherine of Siena at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about Catherine of Siena at Internet Archive
- Saint Catherine of Siena: Text with concordances and frequency list
- Drawn by Love, The Mysticism of Catherine of Siena
- St. Catherine of Siena at the Christian Iconography web site
- Divae Catharinae Senensis Vita 15th-century manuscript at Stanford Digital Repository
- St Catherine statue - St Peter's Square Colonnade Saints