"Slave" and "Slaves" redirect here. For a 1969 film, see Slaves (film). For other uses, see Slave (disambiguation).

Slavery is a legal or economic system in which principles of property law are applied to humans allowing them to be classified as property,[1] to be owned, bought and sold accordingly, and they cannot withdraw unilaterally from the arrangement. While a person is enslaved, the owner is entitled to the productivity of the slave's labour, without any remuneration. The rights and protection of the slave may be regulated by laws and customs in a particular time and place, and a person may become a slave from the time of their capture, purchase or birth.

Today, chattel slavery is unlawful in all countries, but a person may still be described as a slave if he or she is forced to work for another person without an ability on the worker's part to unilaterally terminate the arrangement. Such situations are today commonly referred to as "practices similar to slavery". The present form of the slave trade is commonly referred to as human trafficking.

Slavery existed before written history and in many cultures.[2] It was once institutionally recognized by most societies, but has now been outlawed in all recognized countries,[3][4] the last being Mauritania in 2007. Chattel slavery is still practiced in areas controlled by ISIS. In other areas slavery continues through such practices as debt bondage, serfdom, domestic servants kept in captivity, certain adoptions in which children are forced to work as slaves, child soldiers, human trafficking, and forced marriage.[5] Accordingly, there are more slaves today than at any time in history, with an estimated 45 million slaves worldwide.[6]


The English word slave comes from Old French sclave, from the Medieval Latin sclavus, from the Byzantine Greek σκλάβος, which, in turn, comes from the ethnonym Slav, because in some early Medieval wars many Slavs were captured and enslaved.[7][8] An older interpretation connected it to the Greek verb skyleúo 'to strip a slain enemy'.[9]

There is a dispute among modern historians about whether the term "enslaved person" rather than "slave" should be used when describing the victims of slavery. According to those proposing a change in terminology, "slave" perpetuates the crime of slavery in language, by reducing its victims to a nonhuman noun instead of, according to Andi Cumbo-Floyd, "carry[ing] them forward as people, not the property that they were". Other historians prefer "slave" because the term is familiar and shorter, or because it accurately reflects the inhumanity of slavery, with "person" implying a degree of autonomy that slavery does not allow for.[10]


Photograph of a slave boy in Zanzibar. 'An Arab master's punishment for a slight offense.' c. 1890.

Chattel slavery

Chattel slavery, also called traditional slavery, is so named because people are treated as the chattel (personal property) of the owner and are bought and sold as if they were commodities. It is the least prevalent form of slavery in the world today.[11]

Bonded labour

Main article: Debt bondage

Debt bondage or bonded labour occurs when a person pledges himself or herself against a loan.[12] The services required to repay the debt, and their duration, may be undefined.[12] Debt bondage can be passed on from generation to generation, with children required to pay off their parents' debt.[12] It is the most widespread form of slavery today.[13] Debt bondage is most prevalent in South Asia.[14]

Forced labour

A Chinese Nationalist soldier, age 10, member of a Chinese division from the X Force, boarding planes in Burma bound for China, May 1944.
Main article: Unfree labour

Forced labour occurs when an individual is forced to work against his or her will, under threat of violence or other punishment, with restrictions on their freedom.[13] Human trafficking is primarily used for prostituting women and children[15] and is the fastest growing form of forced labour,[13] with Thailand, Cambodia, India, Brazil and Mexico having been identified as leading hotspots of commercial sexual exploitation of children.[16] In 2007, Human Rights Watch estimated that 200,000 to 300,000 children served as soldiers in current conflicts.[17]

The term 'forced labour' is also used to describe all types of slavery and may also include institutions not commonly classified as slavery, such as serfdom, conscription and penal labour. Some even argue that taxation is a form of slavery – for example Leo Tolstoy argued that taxation of labor is one of three stages of slavery (the other two being land slavery and personal slavery).[18]

Forced marriage

Main article: Forced marriage

A forced marriage may be regarded as a form of slavery by one or more of the parties involved in the marriage, as well as by people observing the marriage. People forced into marriage can be required to engage in sexual activity or to perform domestic duties or other work without any personal control. The customs of bride price and dowry that exist in many parts of the world can lead to buying and selling people into marriage.[19][20] Forced marriage continues to be practiced in parts of the world including some parts of Asia and Africa. Forced marriages may also occur in immigrant communities in Europe, the United States, Canada and Australia.[21][22][23][24] Marriage by abduction occurs in many places in the world today, with a national average of 69% of marriages in Ethiopia being through abduction.[25]

The International Labour Organisation defines child and forced marriage as forms of modern-day slavery.[26]


The word "slave" has also been used to refer to a legal state of dependency to somebody else.[27][28] In many cases, such as in ancient Persia, the situation and lives of such slaves could be better than those of other common citizens.[29]

Contemporary slavery

Modern incidence of slavery, as a percentage of the population, by country. Estimates from the Walk Free Foundation. Estimates by other sources may be higher.
Child brickyard labourers in Nepal: Thousands of children work as bonded labourers in Asia, particularly in the Indian subcontinent.[30]

Even though slavery is now outlawed in every country,[31] the number of slaves today is estimated as between 12 million[32] and 29.8 million.[33] Several estimates of the number of slaves in the world have been provided.[34] According to a broad definition of slavery used by Kevin Bales of Free the Slaves (FTS), an advocacy group linked with Anti-Slavery International, there were 27 million people in slavery in 1999, spread all over the world.[35] In 2005, the International Labour Organization provided an estimate of 12.3 million forced labourers.[36] Siddharth Kara has also provided an estimate of 28.4 million slaves at the end of 2006 divided into three categories: bonded labour/debt bondage (18.1 million), forced labour (7.6 million), and trafficked slaves (2.7 million).[37] Kara provides a dynamic model to calculate the number of slaves in the world each year, with an estimated 29.2 million at the end of 2009. According to a 2003 report by Human Rights Watch, an estimated 15 million children in debt bondage in India work in slavery-like conditions to pay off their family's debts.[38][39]


A report by the Walk Free Foundation in 2013,[40] found India had the highest number of slaves, nearly 14 million, followed by China (2.9 million), Pakistan (2.1 million), Nigeria, Ethiopia, Russia, Thailand, Democratic Republic of Congo, Myanmar and Bangladesh; while the countries with the highest of proportion of slaves were Mauritania, Haiti, Pakistan, India and Nepal.[41]

In June 2013, U.S. State Department released a report on slavery, it placed Russia, China, Uzbekistan in the worst offenders category, Cuba, Iran, North Korea, Sudan, Syria, and Zimbabwe were also at the lowest level. The list also included Algeria, Libya, Saudi Arabia and Kuwait among a total of 21 countries.[42][43]


While American slaves in 1809 were sold for around $40,000 (in inflation adjusted dollars), a slave nowadays can be bought for just $90, making replacement more economical than providing long term care.[44] Slavery is a multibillion-dollar industry with estimates of up to $35 billion generated annually.[45]


Main article: Human trafficking
A world map showing countries by prevalence of female trafficking

Trafficking in human beings (also called human trafficking) is one method of obtaining slaves.[46] Victims are typically recruited through deceit or trickery (such as a false job offer, false migration offer, or false marriage offer), sale by family members, recruitment by former slaves, or outright abduction. Victims are forced into a "debt slavery" situation by coercion, deception, fraud, intimidation, isolation, threat, physical force, debt bondage or even force-feeding with drugs of abuse to control their victims.[47] "Annually, according to U.S. government-sponsored research completed in 2006, approximately 800,000 people are trafficked across national borders, which does not include millions trafficked within their own countries. Approximately 80 percent of transnational victims are women and girls and up to 50 percent are minors", reports the U.S. State Department in a 2008 study.[48]

While the majority of trafficking victims are women, and sometimes children, who are forced into prostitution (in which case the practice is called sex trafficking), victims also include men, women and children who are forced into manual labour.[49] Due to the illegal nature of human trafficking, its exact extent is unknown. A U.S. government report published in 2005, estimates that 600,000 to 800,000 people worldwide are trafficked across borders each year. This figure does not include those who are trafficked internally.[49] Another research effort revealed that between 1.5 million and 1.8 million individuals are trafficked either internally or internationally each year, 500,000 to 600,000 of whom are sex trafficking victims.[37]


Examples of modern slavery are numerous. Child slavery has commonly been used in the production of cash crops and mining.


In 2008, the Nepalese government abolished the Haliya system, under which 20,000 people were forced to provide free farm labour.[50]

Though slavery was officially abolished in Qing China in 1910,[51] the practice continues unofficially in some regions of the country.[52][53][54] In June and July 2007, 550 people who had been enslaved by brick manufacturers in Shanxi and Henan were freed by the Chinese government.[55] Among those rescued were 69 children.[56] In response, the Chinese government assembled a force of 35,000 police to check northern Chinese brick kilns for slaves, sent dozens of kiln supervisors to prison, punished 95 officials in Shanxi province for dereliction of duty, and sentenced one kiln foreman to death for killing an enslaved worker.[55]

The North Korean government[57] operates six large political prison camps,[58] where political prisoners and their families (around 200,000 people)[59] in lifelong detention[60] are subjected to hard slave labour,[61] torture and inhumane treatment.[62]

In November 2006, the International Labour Organization announced it will be seeking "to prosecute members of the ruling Myanmar junta for crimes against humanity" over the continuous unfree labour of its citizens by the military at the International Court of Justice.[63][64] According to the International Labor Organization (ILO), an estimated 800,000 people are subject to forced labour in Myanmar.[65]

South America and Caribbean

In 2008, in Brazil about 5,000 slaves were rescued by government authorities as part of an initiative to eradicate slavery, which was reported as ongoing in 2010.[66] Poverty has forced at least 225,000 Haitian children to work as restavecs (unpaid household servants); the United Nations considers this to be a form of slavery.[67]

Middle East

Some tribal sheiks in Iraq still keep blacks, called Abd, which means servant or slave in Arabic, as slaves.[68]

According to media reports from late 2014 the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) was selling Yazidi and Christian women as slaves.[69][70][71] According to Haleh Esfandiari of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, after ISIL militants have captured an area "[t]hey usually take the older women to a makeshift slave market and try to sell them."[72] In mid-October 2014, the UN estimated that 5,000 to 7,000 Yazidi women and children were abducted by ISIL and sold into slavery.[73][74] In the digital magazine Dabiq, ISIL claimed religious justification for enslaving Yazidi women whom they consider to be from a heretical sect. ISIL claimed that the Yazidi are idol worshipers and their enslavement part of the old shariah practice of spoils of war.[75][76][77][78][79] According to The Wall Street Journal, ISIL appeals to apocalyptic beliefs and claims "justification by a Hadith that they interpret as portraying the revival of slavery as a precursor to the end of the world".[80]


Tuareg society is traditionally feudal, ranging from nobles, through vassals, to dark-skinned slaves.[81]
Burning of a Village in Africa, and Capture of its Inhabitants (p. 12, February 1859, XVI)[82]

In Mauritania, the last country to abolish slavery (in 1981),[83] it is estimated that up to 600,000 men, women and children, or 20% of the population, are enslaved with many used as bonded labour.[84][85][86] Slavery in Mauritania was criminalized in August 2007.[87] (although slavery as a practice was legally banned in 1981, it was not a crime to own a slave until 2007).[88] Although many slaves have escaped or have been freed since 2007, as of 2012, only one slave-owner had been sentenced to serve time in prison.[89]

An article in the Middle East Quarterly in 1999 reported that slavery is endemic in Sudan.[90] Estimates of abductions during the Second Sudanese Civil War range from 14,000 to 200,000 people.[91]

In Niger, slavery is also a current phenomenon. A Nigerien study has found that more than 800,000 people are enslaved, almost 8% of the population.[92][93][94] Niger installed anti slavery provision in 2003.[95][96] In a landmark ruling in 2008, the ECOWAS Community Court of Justice declared that the Republic of Niger failed to protect Hadijatou Mani Koraou from slavery, and awarded Mani CFA 10,000,000 (approximately US$20,000) in reparations.[97]

Many pygmies in the Republic of Congo and Democratic Republic of Congo belong from birth to Bantus in a system of slavery.[98][99]

According to the U.S. State Department, more than 109,000 children were working on cocoa farms alone in Ivory Coast in "the worst forms of child labour" in 2002.[100]

On the night of 14–15 April 2014, a group of militants attacked the Government Girls Secondary School in Chibok, Nigeria. They broke into the school, pretending to be guards,[101] telling the girls to get out and come with them.[102] A large number of students were taken away in trucks, possibly into the Konduga area of the Sambisa Forest where Boko Haram were known to have fortified camps.[102] Houses in Chibok were also burned down in the incident.[103] According to police, approximately 276 children were taken in the attack, of whom 53 had escaped as of 2 May.[104] Other reports said that 329 girls were kidnapped, 53 had escaped and 276 were still missing.[105][106][107] The students have been forced to convert to Islam[108] and into marriage with members of Boko Haram, with a reputed "bride price" of 2,000 each ($12.50/£7.50).[109][110] Many of the students were taken to the neighbouring countries of Chad and Cameroon, with sightings reported of the students crossing borders with the militants, and sightings of the students by villagers living in the Sambisa Forest, which is considered a refuge for Boko Haram.[110][111]

On May 5, 2014 a video in which Boko Haram leader Abubakar Shekau claimed responsibility for the kidnappings emerged. Shekau claimed that "Allah instructed me to sell them...I will carry out his instructions"[112] and "[s]lavery is allowed in my religion, and I shall capture people and make them slaves."[113] He said the girls should not have been in school and instead should have been married since girls as young as nine are suitable for marriage.[112][113]


Main article: History of slavery
Slaves working in a mine, Ancient Greece.
Slaves in chains, relief found at Smyrna (present day İzmir, Turkey), 200 AD

Early history

Evidence of slavery predates written records, and has existed in many cultures.[2] Graves dating to 8000 BC in Egypt may show the enslavement of a San-like tribe.[114] Slavery is rare among hunter-gatherer populations. Mass slavery also requires economic surpluses and a high population density to be viable. Due to these factors, the practice of slavery would have only proliferated after the invention of agriculture during the Neolithic Revolution about 11,000 years ago.[115]

In the earliest known records, slavery is treated as an established institution. The Code of Hammurabi (ca. 1760 BC), for example, prescribed death for anyone who helped a slave escape or who sheltered a fugitive.[116] The Bible mentions slavery as an established institution.[2]

Slavery was known in almost every ancient civilization and society including Sumer, Ancient Egypt, Ancient China, the Akkadian Empire, Assyria, Ancient India, Ancient Greece, the Roman Empire, the Hebrew kingdoms of the ancient Levant, and the pre-Columbian civilizations of the Americas.[2] Such institutions included debt-slavery, punishment for crime, the enslavement of prisoners of war, child abandonment, and the birth of slave children to slaves.[117]

Classical antiquity

The work of the Mercedarians was in ransoming Christian slaves held in Muslim hands (1637).

Records of slavery in Ancient Greece date as far back as Mycenaean Greece. It is certain that Classical Athens had the largest slave population, with as many as 80,000 in the 6th and 5th centuries BC;[118] two to four-fifths of the population were slaves.[119] As the Roman Republic expanded outward, entire populations were enslaved, thus creating an ample supply from all over Europe and the Mediterranean. Greeks, Illyrians, Berbers, Germans, Britons, Thracians, Gauls, Jews, Arabs, and many more were slaves used not only for labour, but also for amusement (e.g. gladiators and sex slaves). This oppression by an elite minority eventually led to slave revolts (see Roman Servile Wars); the Third Servile War led by Spartacus (a Thracian) being the most famous and bitter.

By the late Republican era, slavery had become a vital economic pillar in the wealth of Rome, as well as a very significant part of Roman society.[120] It is estimated that 25% or more of the population of Ancient Rome was enslaved, although the actual percentage is debated by scholars, and varied from region to region.[121][122] Slaves represented 15–25% of Italy's population,[123] mostly captives in war[123] especially from Gaul[124] and Epirus. Estimates of the number of slaves in the Roman Empire suggest that the majority of slaves were scattered throughout the provinces outside of Italy.[123] Generally, slaves in Italy were indigenous Italians,[125] with a minority of foreigners (including both slaves and freedmen) born outside of Italy estimated at 5% of the total in the capital at its peak, where their number was largest. Those from outside of Europe were predominantly of Greek descent, while the Jewish ones never fully assimilated into Roman society, remaining an identifiable minority. These slaves (especially the foreigners) had higher death rates and lower birth rates than natives, and were sometimes even subjected to mass expulsions.[126] The average recorded age at death for the slaves of the city of Rome was extraordinarily low: seventeen and a half years (17.2 for males; 17.9 for females).[127]

Middle Ages

Medieval and Early Modern Europe

See also: Serfdom
Adalbert of Prague accuses the Jews of the Christian slave trade against Boleslaus II, Duke of Bohemia, relief of Gniezno Doors

Large-scale trading in slaves was mainly confined to the South and East of early medieval Europe: the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim world were the destinations, while pagan Central and Eastern Europe (along with the Caucasus and Tartary) were important sources. Viking, Arab, Greek, and Radhanite Jewish merchants were all involved in the slave trade during the Early Middle Ages.[128][129][130] The trade in European slaves reached a peak in the 10th century following the Zanj rebellion which dampened the use of African slaves in the Arab world.[131][132]

Medieval Spain and Portugal were the scene of almost constant Muslim invasion of the predominantly Christian area. Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from Al-Andalus to ravage the Iberian Christian kingdoms, bringing back booty and slaves. In raid against Lisbon, Portugal in 1189, for example, the Almohad caliph Yaqub al-Mansur took 3,000 female and child captives, while his governor of Córdoba, in a subsequent attack upon Silves, Portugal in 1191, took 3,000 Christian slaves.[133] From the 11th to the 19th century, North African Barbary Pirates engaged in Razzias, raids on European coastal towns, to capture Christian slaves to sell at slave markets in places such as Algeria and Morocco.[134][135]

Depiction of socage on the royal demesne in feudal England, ca. 1310. Socage is an aspect of serfdom, not usually included under the term "slavery".

In Britain, slavery continued to be practiced following the fall of Rome and sections of Hywel the Good's laws dealt with slaves in medieval Wales. The trade particularly picked up after the Viking invasions, with major markets at Chester[136] and Bristol[137] supplied by Danish, Mercian, and Welsh raiding of one another's borderlands. At the time of the Domesday Book, nearly 10% of the English population were slaves.[138] Slavery in early medieval Europe was so common that the Roman Catholic Church repeatedly prohibited it — or at least the export of Christian slaves to non-Christian lands was prohibited at e.g. the Council of Koblenz (922), the Council of London (1102) aimed mainly at the sale of English slaves to Ireland[139] and having no legal standing), and the Council of Armagh (1171). In 1452, Pope Nicholas V issued the papal bull Dum Diversas, granting the kings of Spain and Portugal the right to reduce any "Saracens (antiquated term referring to Muslims), pagans and any other unbelievers" to perpetual slavery, legitimizing the slave trade as a result of war.[140] The approval of slavery under these conditions was reaffirmed and extended in his Romanus Pontifex bull of 1455. However, Pope Paul III forbade enslavement of the Native Americans in 1537 in his papal bull Sublimus Dei.[141] Dominican friars who arrived at the Spanish settlement at Santo Domingo strongly denounced the enslavement of the local Native Americans. Along with other priests, they opposed their treatment as unjust and illegal in an audience with the Spanish king and in the subsequent royal commission.[142]

Crimean Tatar raiders enslaved more than 1 million Eastern Europeans.[143]

The Byzantine-Ottoman wars and the Ottoman wars in Europe brought large numbers of slaves into the Islamic world.[144] To staff its bureaucracy, the Ottoman Empire established a janissary system which seized hundreds of thousands of Christian boys through the devşirme system. They were well cared for but were legally slaves owned by the government and were not allowed to marry. They were never bought or sold. The Empire gave them significant administrative and military roles. The system began about 1365; there were 135,000 janissaries in 1826, when the system ended.[145] After the Battle of Lepanto, 12,000 Christian galley slaves were recaptured and freed from the Ottoman fleet.[146] Eastern Europe suffered a series of Tatar invasions, the goal of which was to loot and capture slaves into jasyr.[147] Seventy-five Crimean Tatar raids were recorded into Poland–Lithuania between 1474 and 1569.[148]

Approximately 10–20% of the rural population of Carolingian Europe consisted of slaves.[149] Slavery largely disappeared from Western Europe by the later Middle Ages.[150] The slave trade became illegal in England in 1102,[151] but England went on to become very active in the lucrative Atlantic slave trade from the seventeenth to the early nineteenth century. In Scandinavia, thralldom was abolished in the mid-14th century.[152] Slavery persisted longer in Eastern Europe. Slavery in Poland was forbidden in the 15th century; in Lithuania, slavery was formally abolished in 1588; they were replaced by the second serfdom. In Kievan Rus and Muscovy, slaves were usually classified as kholops.

Arab slave trade

Main article: Arab slave trade
13th century slave market in Yemen. Yemen officially abolished slavery in 1962.[153]

In early Islamic states of the Western Sudan (present-day West Africa), including Ghana (750–1076), Mali (1235–1645), Segou (1712–1861), and Songhai (1275–1591), about a third of the population was enslaved.[154]

Slaves were purchased or captured on the frontiers of the Islamic world and then imported to the major centres, where there were slave markets from which they were widely distributed.[155][156][157] In the 9th and 10th centuries, the black Zanj slaves may have constituted at least a half of the total population of lower Iraq.[154] At the same time, many slaves in the region were also imported from Central Asia and the Caucasus.[154] Many slaves were taken in the wars with the Christian nations of medieval Europe.


Slavery was also widespread in Africa, with both internal and external slave trade.[158]

Modern history


An 1852 Wallachian poster advertising an auction of Roma slaves in Bucharest.
«The White Slave» (Eberle, 1913)

Author David P. Forsythe has written: "In 1649 up to three-quarters of Muscovy's peasants, or 13 to 14 million people, were serfs whose material lives were barely distinguishable from slaves. Perhaps another 1.5 million were formally enslaved, with Russian slaves serving Russian masters."[159] Slavery remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter the Great converted the household slaves into house serfs. Russian agricultural slaves were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679.[160] Russia's more than 23 million privately held serfs were freed by the Emancipation reform of 1861.[161] State-owned serfs were emancipated in 1866.[162]

Until the late 18th century, the Crimean Khanate (a Muslim Tatar state) maintained a massive slave trade with the Ottoman Empire and the Middle East,[147] exporting about 2 million slaves from Poland-Lithuania and Russia over the period 1500–1700.[163]

During the Second World War (1939–1945) Nazi Germany effectively enslaved about 12 million people, both those considered undesirable and citizens of countries they conquered.[164]


Main article: Slavery in Africa
The main routes that were used to transport slaves across medieval Africa.

In Algiers, the capital of Algeria, captured Christians and Europeans were forced into slavery. This eventually led to the bombardment of Algiers by an Anglo-Dutch fleet in 1816.[165][166]

Slave traders in Gorée, Senegal, 18th century

Half the population of the Sokoto caliphate of the 19th century (based in the future northern Nigeria) were slaves.[154] The Swahili-Arab slave trade reached its height about 160 years ago, when, for example, approximately 20,000 slaves were considered to be carried yearly from Nkhotakota on Lake Malawi to Kilwa.[167] Roughly half the population of Madagascar was enslaved.[154][168]

According to the Encyclopedia of African History, "It is estimated that by the 1890s the largest slave population of the world, about 2 million people, was concentrated in the territories of the Sokoto Caliphate. The use of slave labour was extensive, especially in agriculture."[169][170] The Anti-Slavery Society estimated there were 2 million slaves in Ethiopia in the early 1930s out of an estimated population of 8 to 16 million.[171]

Arab slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma river (in today's Tanzania and Mozambique).

Hugh Clapperton in 1824 believed that half the population of Kano were enslaved people.[172] W. A. Veenhoven wrote: "The German doctor, Gustav Nachtigal, an eye-witness, believed that for every slave who arrived at a market three or four died on the way ... Keltie (The Partition of Africa, London, 1920) believes that for every slave the Arabs brought to the coast at least six died on the way or during the slavers' raid. Livingstone puts the figure as high as ten to one."[173]

One of the most famous slave traders on the eastern Zanj (Bantu) coast was Tippu Tip, himself the grandson of a slave. The prazeros were slave-traders along the Zambezi. North of the Zambezi, the waYao and Makua people played a similar role as professional slave-raiders and -traders. Still further north were the Nyamwezi slave-traders.[174]


A contract from the Tang dynasty that records the purchase of a 15-year-old slave for six bolts of plain silk and five Chinese coins.

In Constantinople, about one-fifth of the population consisted of slaves.[154] The city was a major centre of the slave trade in the 15th and later centuries. By 1475 most of the slaves were provided by Tatar raids on Slavic villages.[175] It has been estimated that some 200,000 slaves—mainly Circassians—were imported into the Ottoman Empire between 1800 and 1909.[176] As late as 1908, women slaves were still sold in the Ottoman Empire.[177] A slave market for captured Russian and Persian slaves was centred in the Central Asian khanate of Khiva.[178] In the early 1840s, the population of the Uzbek states of Bukhara and Khiva included about 900,000 slaves.[176] Darrel P. Kaiser wrote, "Kazakh-Kirghiz tribesmen kidnapped 1573 settlers from colonies [German settlements in Russia] in 1774 alone and only half were successfully ransomed. The rest were killed or enslaved."[179]

According to Sir Henry Bartle Frere (who sat on the Viceroy's Council), there were an estimated 8 or 9 million slaves in India in 1841. About 15% of the population of Malabar were slaves. Slavery was abolished in British India by the Indian Slavery Act V. of 1843.[2]

In East Asia, the Imperial government formally abolished slavery in China in 1906, and the law became effective in 1910.[180] The Nangzan in Tibetan history were, according to Chinese sources, hereditary household slaves.[181]

Indigenous slaves existed in Korea. Slavery was abolished with the Gabo Reform of 1894, but continued in reality until 1930. During the Joseon Dynasty (1392–1910), about 30% to 50% of the Korean population were slaves.[2] In late 16th century Japan, slavery as such was officially banned, but forms of contract and indentured labour persisted alongside the period penal codes' forced labour.[182]

The hill tribe people in Indochina were "hunted incessantly and carried off as slaves by the Siamese (Thai), the Anamites (Vietnamese), and the Cambodians".[183] A Siamese military campaign in Laos in 1876 was described by a British observer as having been "transformed into slave-hunting raids on a large scale".[184] The census, taken in 1879, showed that 6% of the population in the Malay sultanate of Perak were slaves.[176] Enslaved people made up about two-thirds of the population in part of North Borneo in the 1880s.[176]


The Brazilian slave-hunter, 1823, by Johann Moritz Rugendas.

Slavery in the Americas had a contentious history, and played a major role in the history and evolution of some countries, triggering at least one revolution and one civil war, as well as numerous rebellions. The Aztecs had slaves.[185] Other Amerindians, such as the Inca of the Andes, the Tupinambá of Brazil, the Creek of Georgia, and the Comanche of Texas, also owned slaves.[2]

The maritime town of Lagos was the first slave market created in Portugal (one of the earliest colonizers of the Americas) for the sale of imported African slaves—the Mercado de Escravos, opened in 1444.[186][187] In 1441, the first slaves were brought to Portugal from northern Mauritania.[187]

In 1519, Mexico's first Afro-Mexican slave was brought by Hernán Cortés.

By 1552, black African slaves made up 10% of the population of Lisbon.[188][189] In the second half of the 16th century, the Crown gave up the monopoly on slave trade and the focus of European trade in African slaves shifted from import to Europe to slave transports directly to tropical colonies in the Americas—in the case of Portugal, especially Brazil.[187] In the 15th century one-third of the slaves were resold to the African market in exchange of gold.[190]

In order to establish itself as an American empire, Spain had to fight against the relatively powerful civilizations of the New World. The Spanish conquest of the indigenous peoples in the Americas included using the Natives as forced labour. The Spanish colonies were the first Europeans to use African slaves in the New World on islands such as Cuba and Hispaniola, see Atlantic slave trade.[191]

The public flogging of a slave in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. From Jean Baptiste Debret, Voyage Pittoresque et Historique au Brésil (1834–1839).

Bartolomé de Las Casas a 16th-century Dominican friar and Spanish historian participated in campaigns in Cuba (at Bayamo and Camagüey) and was present at the massacre of Hatuey; his observation of that massacre led him to fight for a social movement away from the use of natives as slaves and towards the importation of African Blacks as slaves. Also, the alarming decline in the native population had spurred the first royal laws protecting the native population (Laws of Burgos, 1512–1513).

The first African slaves arrived in Hispaniola in 1501.[192] In 1518, Charles I of Spain agreed to ship slaves directly from Africa. England played a prominent role in the Atlantic slave trade. The "slave triangle" was pioneered by Francis Drake and his associates. In 1640 a Virginia court sentenced John Punch to slavery, forcing him to serve his master, Hugh Gwyn, for the remainder of his life. This was the first legal sanctioning of slavery in the English colonies.[193][194] In 1655, A black man, Anthony Johnson of Virginia, was granted ownership of John Casor as the result of a civil case.[195]

The Henrietta Marie was probably built in France sometime in the 17th century and carried a crew of about eighteen men. The ship came into English possession late in the 17th century, possibly as a war prize during the War of the Grand Alliance. It was put to use in the Atlantic slave trade, making at least two voyages carrying Africans to slavery in the West Indies. On its first voyage, in 1697–1698, the ship carried more than 200 people from Africa that were sold as slaves in Barbados. In 1699 the Henrietta Marie sailed from England on the first leg of the triangular trade route with a load of trade goods, including iron and copper bars, pewter utensils, glass beads, cloth and brandy. The ship sailed under license from the Royal African Company (which held a monopoly on English trade with Africa), in exchange for ten percent of the profits of the voyage. It is known to have traded for African captives at New Calabar on the Guinea Coast. The ship then sailed on the second leg of its voyage, from Africa to the West Indies, and in May 1701 landed 191 Africans for sale in Port Royal, Jamaica. The Henrietta Marie then loaded a cargo of sugar, cotton, dyewoods (indigo) and ginger to take back to England on the third leg of the triangular route. After leaving Port Royal on 18 May 1701, the ship headed for the Yucatán Channel to pass around the western end of Cuba (thus avoiding the pirates infesting the passage between Cuba and Hispaniola) and catch the Gulf Stream, the preferred route for all ships leaving the Caribbean to return to Europe. A month later, the Henrietta Marie wrecked on New Ground Reef near the Marquesas Keys, approximately 35 miles (56 kilometres) west of Key West. All aboard were lost.[196]

Planting the sugar cane, British colony of Antigua, 1823

Pirates often targeted slavers. For example, the 300 ton English frigate Concord launched in 1710 but was captured by the French one year later. She was modified to hold more cargo, including slaves, and renamed La Concorde de Nantes. Sailing as a slave ship, she was captured by the pirate Captain Benjamin Hornigold on November 28, 1717, near the island of Martinique. Hornigold turned her over to one of his men, Edward Teach (later known as Blackbeard), and made him her captain. Teach then renamed her the Queen Anne's Revenge.[197] By 1750, slavery was a legal institution in all of the 13 American colonies,[198][199] and the profits of the slave trade and of West Indian plantations amounted to 5% of the British economy at the time of the Industrial Revolution.[200]

The trans-Atlantic slave trade peaked in the late 18th century, when the largest number of slaves were captured on raiding expeditions into the interior of West Africa. These expeditions were typically carried out by African kingdoms, such as the Oyo empire (Yoruba), the Ashanti Empire,[201] the kingdom of Dahomey,[202] and the Aro Confederacy.[203] Europeans rarely entered the interior of Africa, due to fierce African resistance. The slaves were brought to coastal outposts where they were traded for goods. A significant portion of African Americans in North America are descended from Mandinka people.[204] Through a series of conflicts, primarily with the Fulani Jihad States, about half of the Senegambian Mandinka were converted to Islam while as many as a third were sold into slavery to the Americas through capture in conflict.[204]

Slaves on a Virginia plantation (The Old Plantation, c. 1790).
Mid 19th century portrait of an older New Orleans woman with her child slave servant.

An estimated 12 million Africans arrived in the Americas from the 16th to the 19th centuries.[205] Of these, an estimated 645,000 were brought to what is now the United States. The usual estimate is that about 15% of slaves died during the voyage, with mortality rates considerably higher in Africa itself in the process of capturing and transporting indigenous peoples to the ships.[206]

Many Europeans who arrived in North America during the 17th and 18th centuries came under contract as indentured servants.[207] The transformation from indentured servitude to slavery was a gradual process in Virginia. The earliest legal documentation of such a shift was in 1640 where a negro, John Punch, was sentenced to lifetime slavery for attempting to run away. This case also marked the disparate treatment of Africans as held by the Virginia County Court, as two white runaways received far lesser sentences.[208] After 1640, planters started to ignore the expiration of indentured contracts and kept their servants as slaves for life. This was demonstrated by the case Johnson v. Parker, where the court ruled that John Casor, an indentured servant, be returned to Johnson who claimed that Casor belonged to him for his life.[209][210] According to the 1860 U. S. census, 393,975 individuals, representing 8% of all US families, owned 3,950,528 slaves.[211] One-third of Southern families owned slaves.[212]

Funeral at slave plantation, Suriname. Colored lithograph printed circa 1840–1850, digitally restored.

The largest number of slaves were shipped to Brazil.[213] In the Spanish viceroyalty of New Granada, corresponding mainly to modern Panama, Colombia, and Venezuela, the free black population in 1789 was 420,000, whereas African slaves numbered only 20,000. Free blacks also outnumbered slaves in Brazil. By contrast, in Cuba, free blacks made up only 15% in 1827; and in the French colony of Saint-Domingue (present-day Haiti) it was a mere 5% in 1789.[214]

Author Charles Rappleye argued that

In the West Indies in particular, but also in North and South America, slavery was the engine that drove the mercantile empires of Europe. It appeared, in the eighteenth century, as universal and immutable as human nature.[215]
Lady in litter being carried by her slaves, province of São Paulo in Brazil, ca.1860.

Although the trans-Atlantic slave trade ended shortly after the American Revolution, slavery remained a central economic institution in the Southern states of the United States, from where slavery expanded with the westward movement of population.[216] Historian Peter Kolchin wrote, "By breaking up existing families and forcing slaves to relocate far from everyone and everything they knew" this migration "replicated (if on a reduced level) many of [the] horrors" of the Atlantic slave trade.[217]

Historian Ira Berlin called this forced migration the Second Middle Passage. Characterizing it as the "central event" in the life of a slave between the American Revolution and the Civil War, Berlin wrote that whether they were uprooted themselves or simply lived in fear that they or their families would be involuntarily moved, "the massive deportation traumatized black people, both slave and free.."[218]

By 1860, 500,000 slaves had grown to 4 million. As long as slavery expanded, it remained profitable and powerful and was unlikely to disappear. Although complete statistics are lacking, it is estimated that 1,000,000 slaves moved west from the Old South between 1790 and 1860.[219]

Most of the slaves were moved from Maryland, Virginia, and the Carolinas. Michael Tadman, in a 1989 book Speculators and Slaves: Masters, Traders, and Slaves in the Old South, indicates that 60–70% of interregional migrations were the result of the sale of slaves. In 1820, a child in the Upper South had a 30% chance to be sold south by 1860.[219]

In Puerto Rico, African slavery was finally abolished on March 22, 1873.

Page Boy with slave collar, Dutch 17th-century painting.

Middle East

Main article: Arab slave trade
Ottoman wars in Europe resulted in many captive Christians being carried deep into Muslim territory.

According to Robert Davis, between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by Barbary pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries.[220][221] There was also an extensive trade in Christian slaves in the Black Sea region for several centuries until the Crimean Khanate was destroyed by the Russian Empire in 1783.[222] In the 1570s close to 20,000 slaves a year were being sold in the Crimean port of Kaffa.[223] The slaves were captured in southern Russia, Poland-Lithuania, Moldavia, Wallachia, and Circassia by Tatar horsemen.[224] Some researchers estimate that altogether more than 3 million people were captured and enslaved during the time of the Crimean Khanate.[225][226]

Persian slave in the Khanate of Khiva, 19th century
British captain witnessing the miseries of the Christian slaves in Algiers, 1815
The Arab enslavement of the Dinka people.

The Arab slave trade lasted more than a millennium.[227] As recently as the early 1960s, Saudi Arabia's slave population was estimated at 300,000.[228] Along with Yemen, the Saudis abolished slavery only in 1962.[229] Historically, slaves in the Arab World came from many different regions, including Sub-Saharan Africa (mainly Zanj),[230] the Caucasus (mainly Circassians),[231] Central Asia (mainly Tartars), and Central and Eastern Europe (mainly Saqaliba).[232]

Under Omani Arabs Zanzibar became East Africa's main slave port, with as many as 50,000 enslaved Africans passing through every year during the 19th century.[233][234] Some historians estimate that between 11 and 18 million African slaves crossed the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Sahara Desert from 650 to 1900 AD.[2][235] Eduard Rüppell described the losses of Sudanese slaves being transported on foot to Egypt: "after the Daftardar bey's 1822 campaign in the southern Nuba mountains, nearly 40,000 slaves were captured. However, through bad treatment, disease and desert travel barely 5000 made it to Egypt.."[236]

The Moors, starting in the 8th century, also raided coastal areas around the Mediterranean and Atlantic Ocean, and became known as the Barbary pirates.[237] It is estimated that they captured 1.25 million white slaves from Western Europe and North America between the 16th and 19th centuries.[238][239] The mortality rate was very high. For instance, plague killed a third to two-thirds of the 30,000 occupants of the slave pens in Algiers in 1662.[220]


Main article: Abolitionism
Isaac Crewdson (Beaconite) writer Samuel Jackman Prescod - Barbadian Journalist William Morgan from Birmingham William Forster - Quaker leader George Stacey - Quaker leader William Forster - Anti-Slavery ambassador John Burnet -Abolitionist Speaker William Knibb -Missionary to Jamaica Joseph Ketley from Guyana George Thompson - UK & US abolitionist J. Harfield Tredgold - British South African (secretary) Josiah Forster - Quaker leader Samuel Gurney - the Banker's Banker Sir John Eardley-Wilmot Dr Stephen Lushington - MP and Judge Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton James Gillespie Birney - American John Beaumont George Bradburn - Massachusetts politician George William Alexander - Banker and Treasurer Benjamin Godwin - Baptist activist Vice Admiral Moorson William Taylor William Taylor John Morrison GK Prince Josiah Conder Joseph Soul James Dean (abolitionist) John Keep - Ohio fund raiser Joseph Eaton Joseph Sturge - Organiser from Birmingham James Whitehorne George Bennett Richard Allen Stafford Allen William Leatham, banker William Beaumont Sir Edward Baines - Journalist Samuel Lucas Samuel Fox, Nottingham grocer Louis Celeste Lecesne Jonathan Backhouse Samuel Bowly William Dawes - Ohio fund raiser Robert Kaye Greville - Botanist Joseph Pease, railway pioneer M.M. Isambert (sic) Mary Clarkson -Thomas Clarkson's daughter in law William Tatum Saxe Bannister - Pamphleteer Richard Davis Webb - Irish Nathaniel Colver - American not known John Cropper - Most generous Liverpudlian Thomas Scales William James William Wilson Thomas Swan Edward Steane from Camberwell William Brock Edward Baldwin Jonathon Miller Capt. Charles Stuart from Jamaica Sir John Jeremie - Judge Charles Stovel - Baptist Richard Peek, ex-Sheriff of London John Sturge Elon Galusha Cyrus Pitt Grosvenor Rev. Isaac Bass Henry Sterry Peter Clare -; sec. of Literary & Phil. Soc. Manchester J.H. Johnson Thomas Price Joseph Reynolds Samuel Wheeler William Boultbee Daniel O'Connell - "The Liberator" William Fairbank John Woodmark William Smeal from Glasgow James Carlile - Irish Minister and educationalist Rev. Dr. Thomas Binney John Howard Hinton - Baptist minister John Angell James - clergyman Joseph Cooper Dr. Richard Robert Madden - Irish Thomas Bulley Isaac Hodgson Edward Smith Sir John Bowring - diplomat and linguist John Ellis C. Edwards Lester - American writer Tapper Cadbury - Businessman not known Thomas Pinches David Turnbull - Cuban link Edward Adey Richard Barrett John Steer Henry Tuckett James Mott - American on honeymoon Robert Forster (brother of William and Josiah) Richard Rathbone John Birt Wendell Phillips - American M. L'Instant from Haiti Henry Stanton - American Prof William Adam Mrs Elizabeth Tredgold - British South African T.M. McDonnell Mrs John Beaumont Anne Knight - Feminist Elizabeth Pease - Suffragist Jacob Post - Religious writer Anne Isabella, Lady Byron - mathematician and estranged wife Amelia Opie - Novelist and poet Mrs Rawson - Sheffield campaigner Thomas Clarkson's grandson Thomas Clarkson Thomas Morgan Thomas Clarkson - main speaker George Head Head - Banker from Carlisle William Allen John Scoble Henry Beckford - emancipated slave and abolitionist Use your cursor to explore (or Click "i" to enlarge)
The painting of the 1840 Anti-Slavery Society Convention at Exeter Hall. Move your cursor to identify delegates or click the icon to enlarge.[1]
  1. ^ Anti-Slavery Society Convention, 1840, Benjamin Robert Haydon, 1841, National Portrait Gallery, London, NPG599, Given by British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society in 1880

Slavery has existed, in one form or another, through recorded human history—as have, in various periods, movements to free large or distinct groups of slaves.

Ashoka, who ruled the Maurya Empire from 269–232 BCE, abolished the slave trade but not slavery.[240] The Qin dynasty, which ruled China from 221 to 206 BC, abolished slavery and discouraged serfdom. However, many of its laws were overturned when the dynasty was overthrown.[241] Slavery was again abolished, by Wang Mang, in China in 17 C.E but was reinstituted after his assassination.[242]

The Spanish colonization of the Americas sparked a discussion about the right to enslave Native Americans. A prominent critic of slavery in the Spanish New World colonies was Bartolomé de las Casas, who opposed the enslavement of Native Americans, and later also of Africans in America.

One of the first protests against slavery came from German and Dutch Quakers in Pennsylvania in 1688.[243] One of the most significant milestones in the campaign to abolish slavery throughout the world occurred in England in 1772, with British judge Lord Mansfield, whose opinion in Somersett's Case was widely taken to have held that slavery was illegal in England. This judgement also laid down the principle that slavery contracted in other jurisdictions could not be enforced in England.[244] In 1777, Vermont, at the time an independent nation, became the first portion of what would become the United States to abolish slavery.[243] France abolished slavery in 1794.[243]

Joseph Jenkins Roberts, born in Virginia, was the first president of Liberia, which was founded in 1822 for freed American slaves.

British Member of Parliament William Wilberforce led the anti-slavery movement in the United Kingdom, although the groundwork was an anti-slavery essay by Thomas Clarkson. Wilberforce was also urged by his close friend, Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, to make the issue his own, and was also given support by reformed Evangelical John Newton. The Slave Trade Act was passed by the British Parliament on March 25, 1807, making the slave trade illegal throughout the British Empire,[245] Wilberforce also campaigned for abolition of slavery in the British Empire, which he lived to see in the Slavery Abolition Act 1833. After the 1807 act abolishing the slave trade was passed, these campaigners switched to encouraging other countries to follow suit, notably France and the British colonies. Between 1808 and 1860, the British West Africa Squadron seized approximately 1,600 slave ships and freed 150,000 Africans who were aboard.[246] Action was also taken against African leaders who refused to agree to British treaties to outlaw the trade, for example against "the usurping King of Lagos", deposed in 1851. Anti-slavery treaties were signed with over 50 African rulers.[247]

In 1839, the world's oldest international human rights organization, Anti-Slavery International, was formed in Britain by Joseph Sturge, which campaigned to outlaw slavery in other countries.[248] There were celebrations in 2007 to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the abolition of the slave trade in the United Kingdom through the work of the British Anti-Slavery Society.

In the United States, abolitionist pressure produced a series of small steps towards emancipation. After January 1, 1808, the importation of slaves into the United States was prohibited,[249] but not the internal slave trade, nor involvement in the international slave trade externally. Legal slavery persisted; and those slaves already in the U.S. were legally emancipated only in 1863. Many American abolitionists took an active role in opposing slavery by supporting the Underground Railroad. Violent clashes between anti-slavery and pro-slavery Americans included Bleeding Kansas, a series of political and armed disputes in 1854–1861 as to whether Kansas would join the United States as a slave or free state. By 1860, the total number of slaves reached almost four million, and the American Civil War, beginning in 1861, led to the end of slavery in the United States.[250] In 1863, Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed slaves held in the Confederate States; the 13th Amendment to the U. S. Constitution prohibited most forms of slavery throughout the country.

Photographed in 1863 – Peter, aka Gordon, a man who was enslaved in Mississippi.[251] This famous photo was distributed by abolitionists.[252]

In the case of freed slaves of the United States, many became sharecroppers and indentured servants. In this manner, some became tied to the very parcel of land into which they had been born a slave having little freedom or economic opportunity due to Jim Crow laws which perpetuated discrimination, limited education, promoted persecution without due process and resulted in continued poverty. Fear of reprisals such as unjust incarcerations and lynchings deterred upward mobility further.

In the 1860s, David Livingstone's reports of atrocities within the Arab slave trade in Africa stirred up the interest of the British public, reviving the flagging abolitionist movement. The Royal Navy throughout the 1870s attempted to suppress "this abominable Eastern trade", at Zanzibar in particular. In 1905, the French abolished indigenous slavery in most of French West Africa.[253]

On December 10, 1948, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which declared freedom from slavery is an internationally recognized human right. Article 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states:

No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.[254]

In 2014, for the first time in history, major leaders of many religions, Buddhist, Anglican, Catholic, and Orthodox Christian, Hindu, Jewish, and Muslim, met to sign a shared commitment against modern-day slavery; the declaration they signed calls for the elimination of slavery and human trafficking by the year 2020.[255] The signatories were: Pope Francis, Mātā Amṛtānandamayī, Bhikkhuni Thich Nu Chân Không (representing Zen Master Thích Nhất Hạnh), Datuk K Sri Dhammaratana, Chief High Priest of Malaysia, Rabbi Abraham Skorka, Rabbi David Rosen, Abbas Abdalla Abbas Soliman, Undersecretary of State of Al Azhar Alsharif (representing Mohamed Ahmed El-Tayeb, Grand Imam of Al-Azhar), Grand Ayatollah Mohammad Taqi al-Modarresi, Sheikh Naziyah Razzaq Jaafar, Special advisor of Grand Ayatollah (representing Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Basheer Hussain al Najafi), Sheikh Omar Abboud, Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Metropolitan Emmanuel of France (representing Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew.)[255]

Groups such as the American Anti-Slavery Group, Anti-Slavery International, Free the Slaves, the Anti-Slavery Society, and the Norwegian Anti-Slavery Society continue to campaign to eliminate slavery.



Economists have attempted to model the circumstances under which slavery (and variants such as serfdom) appear and disappear. One observation is that slavery becomes more desirable for landowners where land is abundant but labour is scarce, such that rent is depressed and paid workers can demand high wages. If the opposite holds true, then it becomes more costly for landowners to have guards for the slaves than to employ paid workers who can only demand low wages due to the amount of competition.[256] Thus, first slavery and then serfdom gradually decreased in Europe as the population grew, but were reintroduced in the Americas and in Russia as large areas of new land with few people became available.[257] In his books, Time on the Cross and Without Consent or Contract: the Rise and Fall of American Slavery, Robert Fogel maintains that slavery was in fact a profitable method of production, especially on bigger plantations growing cotton that fetched high prices in the world market. It gave whites in the South higher average incomes than those in the North, but most of the money was spent on buying slaves and plantations.

Slave being whipped in Brazil, during the heyday of gold exploration in Minas Gerais (1770).

Slavery is more common when the labour done is relatively simple and thus easy to supervise, such as large-scale growing of a single crop. It is much more difficult and costly to check that slaves are doing their best and with good quality when they are doing complex tasks. Therefore, slavery was seen as the most efficient method of production for large-scale crops like sugar and cotton, whose output was based on economies of scale. This enabled a gang system of labour to be prominent on large plantations where field hands were monitored and worked with factory-like precision. Each work gang was based on an internal division of labour that not only assigned every member of the gang to a precise task but simultaneously made his or her performance dependent on the actions of the others. The hoe hands chopped out the weeds that surrounded the cotton plants as well as excessive sprouts. The plow gangs followed behind, stirring the soil near the rows of cotton plants and tossing it back around the plants. Thus, the gang system worked like an early version of the assembly line later to be found in factories.[258]

Critics since the 18th century have argued that slavery tends to retard technological advancement, since the focus is on increasing the number of slaves doing simple tasks rather than upgrading the efficiency of labour. Because of this, theoretical knowledge and learning in Greece—and later in Rome—was not applied to ease physical labour or improve manufacturing.[259]

Adam Smith made the argument that free labour was economically better than slave labour, and argued further that slavery in Europe ended during the Middle Ages, and then only after both the church and state were separate, independent and strong institutions,[260] that it is nearly impossible to end slavery in a free, democratic and republican forms of governments since many of its legislators or political figures were slave owners, and would not punish themselves, and that slaves would be better able to gain their freedom when there was centralized government, or a central authority like a king or the church.[261] Similar arguments appear later in the works of Auguste Comte, especially when it comes to Adam Smith's belief in the separation of powers or what Comte called the "separation of the spiritual and the temporal" during the Middle Ages and the end of slavery, and Smith's criticism of masters, past and present. As Smith stated in the Lectures on Jurisprudence, "The great power of the clergy thus concurring with that of the king set the slaves at liberty. But it was absolutely necessary both that the authority of the king and of the clergy should be great. Where ever any one of these was wanting, slavery still continues.."

The inspection and sale of a slave

Slaves can be an attractive investment because the slave-owner only needs to pay for sustenance and enforcement. This is sometimes lower than the wage-cost of free labourers, because free workers earn more than sustenance, in these cases slaves have positive price. When the cost of sustenance and enforcement exceeds the wage rate, slave-owning would no longer be profitable, and owners would simply release their slaves. Slaves are thus a more attractive investment in high-wage environments, and environments where enforcement is cheap, and less attractive in environments where the wage-rate is low and enforcement is expensive.[262]

Free workers also earn compensating differentials, whereby they are paid more for doing unpleasant work. Neither sustenance nor enforcement costs rise with the unpleasantness of the work, however, so slaves' costs do not rise by the same amount. As such, slaves are more attractive for unpleasant work, and less for pleasant work. Because the unpleasantness of the work is not internalised, being born by the slave rather than the owner, it is a negative externality and leads to over-use of slaves in these situations.[262]

The weighted average global sales price of a slave is calculated to be approximately $340, with a high of $1,895 for the average trafficked sex slave, and a low of $40 to $50 for debt bondage slaves in part of Asia and Africa.[37] Worldwide slavery is a criminal offense but slave owners can get very high returns for their risk. According to researcher Siddharth Kara, the profits generated worldwide by all forms of slavery in 2007 were $91.2 billion. That is second only to drug trafficking in terms of global criminal enterprises. The weighted average annual profits generated by a slave in 2007 was $3,175, with a low of an average $950 for bonded labour and $29,210 for a trafficked sex slave.[37] Approximately 40% of slave profits each year are generated by trafficked sex slaves, representing slightly more than 4% of the world's 29 million slaves.[37]

Robert E. Wright has developed a model that helps to predict when firms (individuals, companies) will be more likely to use slaves rather than wage workers, indentured servants, family members, or other types of labourers.[263]


Throughout history, slaves were clothed in a distinctive fashion, particularly with respect to footwear or rather the lack thereof. This was both due to economic reasons as well as a distinguishing feature, especially in South Africa and South America. For example, the Cape Town slave code stated that "Slaves must go barefoot and must carry passes."[264] This was the case in the majority of states that abolished slavery later in history, as most images from the respective historical period suggest that slaves were barefoot.[265] To quote Brother Riemer (1779): "[the slaves] are, even in their most beautiful suit, obliged to go barefoot. Slaves were forbidden to wear shoes. This was a prime mark of distinction between the free and the bonded and no exceptions were permitted." [266]

As shoes have been considered badges of freedom since biblical times "But the father said to his servants, Bring forth the best robe, and put [it] on him; and put a ring on his hand, and shoes on [his] feet (Luke 15:22)" this aspect has been an informal law wherever slavery existed. A barefoot person could therefore be clearly identified as a slave upon first sight. In certain societies this rule is valid to this day, as with the Tuareg slavery which is still unofficially practiced, and their slaves have to go barefoot.[267]


On May 21, 2001, the National Assembly of France passed the Taubira law, recognizing slavery as a crime against humanity. Apologies on behalf of African nations, for their role in trading their countrymen into slavery, remain an open issue since slavery was practiced in Africa even before the first Europeans arrived and the Atlantic slave trade was performed with a high degree of involvement of several African societies. The black slave market was supplied by well-established slave trade networks controlled by local African societies and individuals.[268] Indeed, as already mentioned in this article, slavery persists in several areas of West Africa until the present day.

There is adequate evidence citing case after case of African control of segments of the trade. Several African nations such as the Calabar and other southern parts of Nigeria had economies depended solely on the trade. African peoples such as the Imbangala of Angola and the Nyamwezi of Tanzania would serve as middlemen or roving bands warring with other African nations to capture Africans for Europeans.[269]

Several historians have made important contributions to the global understanding of the African side of the Atlantic slave trade. By arguing that African merchants determined the assemblage of trade goods accepted in exchange for slaves, many historians argue for African agency and ultimately a shared responsibility for the slave trade.[270]

In 1999, President Mathieu Kerekou of Benin (formerly the Kingdom of Dahomey) issued a national apology for the central role Africans played in the Atlantic slave trade.[271] Luc Gnacadja, minister of environment and housing for Benin, later said: "The slave trade is a shame, and we do repent for it."[272] Researchers estimate that 3 million slaves were exported out of the Slave Coast bordering the Bight of Benin.[272] President Jerry Rawlings of Ghana also apologized for his country's involvement in the slave trade.[271]

The issue of an apology is linked to reparations for slavery and is still being pursued by a number of entities across the world. For example, the Jamaican Reparations Movement approved its declaration and action Plan.

In September 2006, it was reported that the UK government might issue a "statement of regret" over slavery.[273] This was followed by a "public statement of sorrow" from Tony Blair on November 27, 2006,[274] and a formal apology on March 14, 2007.[275]

On February 25, 2007, the Commonwealth of Virginia resolved to 'profoundly regret' and apologize for its role in the institution of slavery. Unique and the first of its kind in the U. S., the apology was unanimously passed in both Houses as Virginia approached the 400th anniversary of the founding of Jamestown, where the first slaves were imported into North America in 1619.[276]

Liverpool, which was a large slave trading port, apologized in 1999. On August 24, 2007, Mayor Ken Livingstone of London, United Kingdom, apologized publicly for Britain's role in colonial slave trade. "You can look across there to see the institutions that still have the benefit of the wealth they created from slavery," he said, pointing towards the financial district. He claimed that London was still tainted by the horrors of slavery. Specifically, London outfitted, financed, and insured many of the ships, which helped fund the building of London's docks. Jesse Jackson praised Livingstone, and added that reparations should be made, one of his common arguments.[277]

On July 30, 2008, the United States House of Representatives passed a resolution apologizing for American slavery and subsequent discriminatory laws.[278] In June 2009, the US Senate passed a resolution apologizing to African-Americans for the "fundamental injustice, cruelty, brutality, and inhumanity of slavery".[279] The news was welcomed by President Barack Obama, the nation's first President of African descent.[280] Some of President Obama's ancestors were slave owners.[281]

In 2010, Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi apologized for Arab involvement in the slave trade, saying: "I regret the behavior of the Arabs… They brought African children to North Africa, they made them slaves, they sold them like animals, and they took them as slaves and traded them in a shameful way."[282]


refer to caption
Monument to slaves in Zanzibar

There have been movements to achieve reparations for those formerly held as slaves, or sometimes their descendants. Claims for reparations for being held in slavery are handled as a civil law matter in almost every country. This is often decried as a serious problem, since former slaves' relative lack of money means they often have limited access to a potentially expensive and futile legal process. Mandatory systems of fines and reparations paid to an as yet undetermined group of claimants from fines, paid by unspecified parties, and collected by authorities have been proposed by advocates to alleviate this "civil court problem.."Since in almost all cases there are no living ex-slaves or living ex-slave owners these movements have gained little traction. In nearly all cases the judicial system has ruled that the statute of limitations on these possible claims has long since expired.

Other uses of the term

The word slavery is often used as a pejorative to describe any activity in which one is coerced into performing.

Proponents of animal rights apply the term slavery to the condition of some or all human-owned animals, arguing that their status is comparable to that of human slaves.[283]

Some argue that military drafts and other forms of coerced government labour constitute state-operated slavery.[284][285] Some libertarians and anarcho-capitalists view government taxation as a form of slavery.[286]

Some Antipsychiatry proponents apply the term slavery to the involuntary psychiatric patient. There are no unbiased physical tests for mental illness, and the psychiatric patient must follow the orders of his/her psychiatrist. Drapetomania was a psychiatric diagnosis for a slave who did not want to be a slave. Thomas Szasz wrote a book titled "Psychiatric Slavery",[287] published in 1998 and a book titled " Liberation by Oppression: A Comparative Study of Slavery and Psychiatry",[288] published in 2003.

Wage slavery

Some socialists, view total and immediate wage dependence as a form of slavery.[289] The labour market, as institutionalised under today's market economic systems, has been criticised,[290] especially by both mainstream socialists and anarcho-syndicalists,[291][292][293][294] who utilise the term wage slavery[295][296] as a pejorative for wage labour. Socialists draw parallels between the trade of labour as a commodity and slavery. Cicero is also known to have suggested such parallels.[297]

For Marxists, labour-as-commodity, which is how they regard wage labour,[298] provides an absolutely fundamental point of attack against capitalism.[299] "It can be persuasively argued," noted one concerned philosopher, "that the conception of the worker's labour as a commodity confirms Marx's stigmatization of the wage system of private capitalism as 'wage-slavery;' that is, as an instrument of the capitalist's for reducing the worker's condition to that of a slave, if not below it."[300]

In film

Film has been the most influential medium in the presentation of the history of slavery to the general public around the world.[301] The American film industry has had a complex relationship with slavery and until recent decades often avoided the topic. Films such as Birth of a Nation (1915)[302] and Gone with the Wind (1939) became controversial because they gave a favourable depiction. The last favourable treatment was Song of the South from Disney in 1946. In 1940 The Santa Fe Trail gave a liberal but ambiguous interpretation of John Brown's attacks on slavery—the film does not know what to do with slavery.[303] The Civil Rights Movement in the 1950s made defiant slaves into heroes.[304] The question of slavery in American memory necessarily involves its depictions in feature films.[305]

Poster for the film Spartacus

Most Hollywood films used American settings, although Spartacus (1960), dealt with an actual revolt in the Roman Empire known as the Third Servile War. It failed and all the rebels were executed, but their spirit lived on according to the film.[306] The Last Supper (La última cena in Spanish) was a 1976 film directed by Cuban Tomás Gutiérrez Alea about the teaching of Christianity to slaves in Cuba, and emphasizes the role of ritual and revolt. Burn! takes place on the imaginary Portuguese island of Queimada (where the locals speak Spanish) and it merges historical events that took place in Brazil, Cuba, Santo Domingo, Jamaica, and elsewhere. Spartacus stays surprisingly close to the historical record.[307]

Historians agree that films have largely shaped historical memories, but they debate issues of accuracy, plausibility, moralism, sensationalism, how facts are stretched in search of broader truths, and suitability for the classroom.[308][309] Berlin argues that critics complain if the treatment emphasizes historical brutality, or if it glosses over the harshness to highlight the emotional impact of slavery.[310]

Year Title [311] Film genre Director Actor Country Book Author
1915 The Birth of a Nation Historical drama / epic D. W. Griffith Lillian Gish  United States The Clansman Thomas Dixon, Jr.
1960 Spartacus Historical drama / epic Stanley Kubrick Kirk Douglas  United States    
1968 Angélique and the Sultan Drama Bernard Borderie    France Angélique in Barbary Anne Golon
1969 Queimada (Burn!) Drama Gillo Pontecorvo Marlon Brando  Italy    
1975 Mandingo Drama, Exploitation film Richard Fleischer Ken Norton  United States Mandingo Kyle Onstott
1977 Roots (TV series) Historical drama Chomsky, Erman, Greene and Moses    United States Roots: The Saga of an American Family Alex Haley
1997 Amistad Drama Steven Spielberg    United States    
1998 Beloved Drama Jonathan Demme    United States   Toni Morrison
2000 Gladiator Historical epic Ridley Scott Russell Crowe  United Kingdom,  United States  
2005 500 Years Later Documentary Owen 'Alik Shahadah    United Kingdom,  United States    
2006 Amazing Grace Historical drama Michael Apted    United Kingdom,  United States    
2007 Trade Thriller Marco Kreuzpaintner    Germany,  United States    
2010 The Slave Hunters Historical drama Kwak Jung-hwan    South Korea    
2012 Lincoln Historical drama / epic Steven Spielberg    United States Doris Kearns Goodwin
2012 Django Unchained Western Quentin Tarantino Jamie Foxx  United States    
2013 12 Years a Slave Historical drama Steve McQueen Chiwetel Ejiofor  United Kingdom,  United States Twelve Years a Slave Solomon Northup

See also


  1. Laura Brace (2004). The Politics of Property: Labour, Freedom and Belonging. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 162–. ISBN 978-0-7486-1535-3. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 "Historical survey: Slave-owning societies". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2007-02-23.
  3. Kevin Bales (2004). New Slavery: A Reference Handbook. ABC-CLIO. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-85109-815-6. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  4. Shelley K. White; Jonathan M. White; Kathleen Odell Korgen (27 May 2014). Sociologists in Action on Inequalities: Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality. SAGE Publications. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-4833-1147-0.
  5. "Religion & Ethics – Modern slavery: Modern forms of slavery". BBC. January 30, 2007. Retrieved June 16, 2009.
  6. "Modern slavery estimated to trap 45 million people worldwide". 31 May 2016. Retrieved 1 June 2016.
  7. Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd edition 1989, s. v. 'slave'
  8. Encyclopædia Britannica, History of Europe – Middle Ages – Growth and innovation – Demographic and agricultural growth
  9. F. Kluge, Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache. 1891, s. v. 'Sklave'.
  10. Waldman, Katy (19 May 2015). "Slave or Enslaved Person? It's not just an academic debate for historians of American slavery.". Slate. Retrieved 20 May 2015.
  11. "Traditional or Chattel Slavery". FSE Project. The Feminist Sexual Ethics Projec. Retrieved 2014-08-31.
  12. 1 2 3 Kevin Bales (2004). New slavery: a reference handbook. ABC-CLIO. pp. 15–18. ISBN 978-1-85109-815-6. Retrieved March 11, 2011.
  13. 1 2 3 "Slavery in the 21st century". Archived from the original on 2010-05-27. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  14. Bales, Kevin (2004). "New Slavery: A Reference Handbook". ISBN 9781851098156.
  15. "Experts encourage action against sex trafficking". Archived from the original on 2009-12-23.
  16. "RIGHTS-MEXICO: 16,000 Victims of Child Sexual Exploitation". Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  17. Staff. Campaign Page: Child Soldiers, Human Rights Watch.
  19. "BBC – Ethics – Slavery: Modern slavery". Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  20. "Report of the Special Rapporteur on contemporary forms of slavery, including its causes and consequences, Gulnara Shahinian" (PDF). United Nations Human Rights Council. 10 July 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 21, 2013. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  21. "Two-year-old 'at risk' of forced marriage". BBC News. March 5, 2013.
  22. "Honor Diaries : Child/Forced Marriage : Factsheet" (PDF). Retrieved 2015-09-29.
  23. "Forced marriages rampant in Ontario".
  24. "WITHOUT CONSENT: FORCED MARRIAGE IN AUSTRALIA" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 2015-06-13.
  25. "UNICEF supports fight to end marriage by abduction in Ethiopia". 9 November 2004. Retrieved 29 August 2013.
  26. "Nigeria's child brides: 'I thought being in labour would never end'". The Guardian. September 9, 2013.
  27. Indrani Chatterjee, Richard Eaton (2006). Slavery and South Asian History. Indiana University Press. p. 3. ISBN 9780253116710.
  28. M. A. Dandamayev, BARDA and BARDADĀRĪ in Encyclopædia Iranica
  29. Farazmand, Ali (1998) "Persian/Iranian Administrative Tradition", in Jay M. Shafritz (Editor), International Encyclopedia of Public Policy and Administration. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 1640–45 – Excerpt: "Persians never practiced mass slavery, and in many cases the situations and lives of semi-slaves (prisoners of war) were in fact better than the common citizens of Persia." (pg 1642)
  30. "Forced and Bonded Child Labor". U.S. Department of Labor. Archived from the original on 2013-08-01.
  31. "A Mauritanian Abolitionist's Crusade Against Slavery". The New Yorker. 2014-09-08. Retrieved 2015-09-29.
  32. "Forced labour – Themes". Archived from the original on 2010-02-09. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
  33. "Inaugural Global Slavery Index Reveals More Than 29 Million People Living In Slavery". Global Slavery Index 2013. 4 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.
  34. Anti-Slavery Society "How many Slaves Are There?" " A recent newspaper article questioned the credibility of estimates by Professor Kevin Bales and others which give an estimate of 27 million slaves, or others who give an estimate of 100 million slaves."
  35. Bales, Kevin (1999). "1". Disposable People: New Slavery in the Global Economy. University of California Press. p. 9. ISBN 0-520-21797-7.
  36. A Global Alliance Against Forced Labour. International Labour Organisation. ISBN 92-2-115360-6.
  37. 1 2 3 4 5 Kara, Siddharth (October 2008). Sex Trafficking – Inside the Business of Modern Slavery. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-13960-1.
  38. "For 15 million in India, a childhood of slavery". The New York Times. January 30, 2003
  39. "Child Slaves Abandoned to India's Silk Industry". Human Rights Watch. January 23, 2003
  40. "Global Slavery Index". Retrieved 2015-02-14.
  41. "India, China, Pakistan, Nigeria on slavery's list of shame". CNN,com. October 18, 2013.
  42. "27 Million People Said to Live in 'Modern Slavery'". The New York Times. June 20, 2013.
  43. Nita Bhalla, "'Modern-day slavery': State Dept. says millions of human trafficking victims go unidentified," NBC News, Jun 19, 2013 (accessed November 28, 2014)
  44. "Economics and Slavery" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-08-18.
  45. Bradford, Laurence (23 July 2013). "Modern day slavery in Southeast Asia: Thailand and Cambodia". Inside Investor. Archived from the original on 2015-03-23. Retrieved 24 July 2013.
  46. E. Benjamin Skinner (January 18, 2010). "sex trafficking in South Africa: World Cup slavery fear". Time. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  47. "Trafficking FAQs – Amnesty International USA". March 30, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  48. Lost Daughters – An Ongoing Tragedy in Nepal Women News Network – WNN, Dec 5, 2008
  49. 1 2 "US State Department Trafficking report". Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  50. "Nepal abolishes slave labour system". ABC News. September 8, 2008.
  51. "Commemoration of the Abolition of Slavery Project". May 20, 2008. Archived from the original on 2008-02-26. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  52. "Chinese Police Find Child Slave". BBC News. April 30, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  53. "Convictions in China slave trial". BBC News. July 17, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  54. "Acme of Obscenity". Archived from the original on July 4, 2010. Retrieved March 28, 2010.
  55. 1 2 "Convictions in China slave trial". BBC. July 17, 2007. Retrieved January 4, 2008.
  56. Zhe, Zhu (June 15, 2007). "More than 460 rescued from brick kiln slavery". China Daily. Retrieved January 4, 2008.
  57. "State Enslavement in North Korea" (PDF). Rhoda E. Howard-Hassmann, Wilfrid Laurier University, Canada. March 16, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  58. "The Hidden Gulag – Exposing Crimes against Humanity in North Korea's Vast Prison System" (PDF). The Committee for Human Rights in North Korea. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  59. "North Korea: Political Prison Camps" (PDF). Amnesty International. May 4, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 9, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  60. "Political Prison Camps in North Korea Today" (PDF). Database Center for North Korean Human Rights. July 15, 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-02-28. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  61. "8.C Crimes Against Humanity: Enslavement (pp. 43–45)". North Korea: A case to answer – a call to act (PDF). Christian Solidarity Worldwide. 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  62. "North Korea: New images reveal true scale of political prison camps". Amnesty International. May 3, 2011. Archived from the original on June 4, 2012. Retrieved July 17, 2012.
  63. "ILO seeks to charge Myanmar junta with atrocities". Reuters. November 16, 2006. Retrieved November 17, 2006.
  64. "ILO asks Myanmar to declare forced labour banned". Reuters. November 14, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  65. "ILO cracks the whip at Yangon". Asia Times. March 29, 2005. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  66. Hernandez, Vladimir (June 26, 2010). "Forced labour clouds boom in Brazil's Amazon". BBC News. Retrieved August 29, 2010; Phillips, Tom (3 January 2009). "Brazilian taskforce frees more than 4,500 slaves after record number of raids on remote farms". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 February 2014.
  67. Report: 225,000 Haiti children in slavery,, 2009-12-22. Retrieved February 16, 2010.
  68. IRAQ: Black Iraqis hoping for a Barack Obama win, Los Angeles Times
  69. Fiona Keating, "Iraq Slave Markets Sell Women for $10 to Attract Isis Recruits", International Business Times, October 4, 2014.
  70. Samuel Smith, "UN Report on ISIS: 24,000 Killed, Injured by Islamic State; Children Used as Soldiers, Women Sold as Sex Slaves", Christian Post, October 9, 2014.
  71. Associated Press and Dan Bloom, "Captured by ISIS and sold into slavery: 15-year-old Yazidi girl tells of her horrific ordeal at hands of jihadists after escaping to Turkey," Daily Mail, 12 October 2014.
  72. Brekke, Kira (8 September 2014). "ISIS Is Attacking Women, And Nobody Is Talking About It". The Huffington Post. Retrieved 11 September 2014.
  73. Steve Hopkins, "Full horror of the Yazidis who didn't escape Mount Sinjar: UN confirms 5,000 men were executed and 7,000 women are now kept as sex slaves," Mail Online, 14 October 2014
  74. Richard Spencer, "Isil carried out massacres and mass sexual enslavement of Yazidis, UN confirms," The Telegraph, 14 Oct. 2014
  75. Reuters, "Islamic State Seeks to Justify Enslaving Yazidi Women and Girls in Iraq," Newsweek, 10-13-2014
  76. "Judgment Day Justifies Sex Slavery Of Women – ISIS Out With Its 4th Edition Of Dabiq Magazine". International Business Times-Australia. October 13, 2014. Archived from the original on October 14, 2014.
  77. Allen McDuffee, "ISIS Is Now Bragging About Enslaving Women and Children," The Atlantic, Oct 13 2014
  78. Salma Abdelaziz, "ISIS states its justification for the enslavement of women," CNN, October 13, 2014
  79. Richard Spencer, "Thousands of Yazidi women sold as sex slaves 'for theological reasons', says Isil," The Daily Telegraph, 13 Oct 2014.
  80. Nour Malas, "Ancient Prophecies Motivate Islamic State Militants: Battlefield Strategies Driven by 1,400-year-old Apocalyptic Ideas," The Wall Street Journal, 18 November 2014 (accessed 22 November 2014)
  81. Fortin, Jacey (16 January 2013). "Mali's Other Crisis: Slavery Still Plagues Mali, And Insurgency Could Make It Worse". International Business Times.
  82. "Burning of a Village in Africa, and Capture of its Inhabitants". Wesleyan Juvenile Offering. XVI: 12. February 1859. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  83. "Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law". BBC News. August 9, 2007. Retrieved Jan 8, 2011.
  84. "Mauritania made slavery illegal last month". September 6, 2007. Archived from the original on 2010-11-21. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  85. "The Abolition season on BBC World Service". BBC News. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  86. John D. Sutter (March 2012). "Slavery's last stronghold". CNN. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
  87. "Mauritanian MPs pass slavery law". BBC News. August 9, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  88. "UN: There is hope for Mauritania's slaves". CNN. March 17, 2012.
  89. "MAURITANIA: Anti-slavery law still tough to enforce," IRIN, 11 December 2012 (accessed November 28, 2014)
  90. "My Career Redeeming Slaves". MEQ. December 1999. Retrieved July 31, 2008.
  91. "Slavery, Abduction and Forced Servitude in Sudan". U.S. Department of State. 22 May 2002. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  92. "The Shackles of Slavery in Niger". ABC News. June 3, 2005. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  93. Andersson, Hilary (February 11, 2005). "Born to be a slave in Niger". BBC News. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  94. "Slavery Today". BBC News. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  95. "Niger Profile". BBC News. 2012. Retrieved September 8, 2012.
  96. "NIGER: Slavery – an unbroken chain," IRIN, March 2005 (accessed November 28, 2014)
  97. Duffy, Helen (2008). "HadijatouMani Koroua v Niger: Slavery Unveiled by the ECOWAS Court" (PDF). Human Rights Law Review: 1–20.
  98. Thomas, Katie (March 12, 2007). "Congo's Pygmies live as slaves". The News & Observer. Archived from the original on February 28, 2009.
  99. As the World Intrudes, Pygmies Feel Endangered, New York Times
  100. U.S. Department of State Country Reports on Human Rights Practices, 2005 Human Rights Report on Côte d'Ivoire
  101. "88 Nigerian schoolgirls abducted by Islamic extremists still missing". The Guardian. Associated Press. 19 April 2014. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  102. 1 2 Maclean, Ruth (17 April 2014) Nigerian schoolgirls still missing after military 'fabricated' rescue The Times, (may need a subscription to view online), Retrieved 10 May 2014
  103. Perkins, Anne (23 April 2014). "200 girls are missing in Nigeria – so why doesn't anybody care?". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 April 2014.
  104. "Nigerian Police Begin Documentation of Kidnapped Girls". Premium Times. All Africa. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  105. "Authorities – 276 Kidnapped Girls Still Missing in Nigeria". VOA. Nigeria: All Africa. 2 May 2014. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  106. Maclean, Ruth (3 May 2014) Nigerian school says 329 girl pupils missing The Times, (may need a subscription), Retrieved 10 May 2014
  107. "United States Sending Manned Flights Over Nigeria to Look for Girls". ABC news. Retrieved 21 October 2014.
  108. Howard LaFranchi (5 May 2014). "What role for US in efforts to rescue Nigeria's kidnapped girls? (+video)". CSMonitor. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
  109. "Boko Haram kidnapped the 230 school girls as wives for its insurgents". The Rainbow. 29 April 2014. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
  110. 1 2 Heaton, Laura (30 April 2014). "Nigeria: kidnapped schoolgirls 'sold as wives to Islamist fighters'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2 May 2014.
  111. Hassan, Turaki A; Sule, Ibrahim Kabiru; Mutum, Ronald (29 April 2014). "Abducted girls moved abroad". Daily Trust. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
  112. 1 2 "Boko Haram admits abducting Nigeria girls from Chibok". BBC News. 5 May 2014. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  113. 1 2 Lister, Tim (6 May 2014). "Boko Haram: The essence of terror". CNN. Retrieved 13 May 2014.
  114. Thomas, Hugh: The Slave Trade Simon and Schuster; Rockefeller Centre; New York, New York; 1997
  115. "Slavery". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  116. "Mesopotamia: The Code of Hammurabi". Archived from the original on 2011-05-14. e.g. Prologue, "the shepherd of the oppressed and of the slaves". Code of Laws #7, "If any one buy from the son or the slave of another man".
  117. Demography, Geography and the Sources of Roman Slaves, by W. V. Harris: The Journal of Roman Studies, 1999
  118. (German) Lauffer, S. "Die Bergwerkssklaven von Laureion", Abhandlungen no. 12 (1956), p. 916.
  119. Slavery in Ancient Greece. Britannica Student Encyclopædia.
  120. "Slavery in Ancient Rome". Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  121. Harper, Kyle (2011), Slavery in the Late Roman World, AD 275–425, Cambridge University Press, pp. 59–60, ISBN 978-1-139-50406-5, retrieved 11 August 2016
  122. "Resisting Slavery in Ancient Rome". BBC News. November 5, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  123. 1 2 3 The Roman slave supply Walter Scheidel. Stanford University.
  124. Sandra R. Joshel, Slavery in the Roman World Cambridge University Press (2010) pp. 55, 90
  125. Santosuosso (2001), pp. 43–44
  126. Noy, David (2000). Foreigners at Rome: Citizens and Strangers. Duckworth with the Classical Press of Wales. ISBN 9780715629529.
  127. Harper, James (1972). Slaves and Freedmen in Imperial Rome. Am J Philol.
  128. "Slave trade – Britannica Concise Encyclopedia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2008-05-28. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  129. "slave-trade". Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  130. "Slavery Encyclopedia of Ukraine". Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  131. Michael Moïssey Postan; Edward Miller (August 28, 1987). The Cambridge Economic History of Europe: Trade and industry in the Middle Ages. Cambridge University Press. pp. 417–. ISBN 978-0-521-08709-4. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  132. Carole Elizabeth Boyce Davies (July 29, 2008). Encyclopedia of the African Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. pp. 1002–. ISBN 978-1-85109-705-0. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  133. James William Brodman. "Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier". Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  134. "British Slaves on the Barbary Coast". Archived from the original on 2008-03-10.
  135. Christopher Hitchens (2007). "Jefferson Versus the Muslim Pirates". City Journal. Retrieved 2015-09-30.
  136. Lewis, C.P. & al. A History of the County of Chester. "Early Medieval Chester 400–1230". Accessed 5 Feb 2013.
  137. Clapham, John H. A Concise Economic History of Britain of Britain from the Earliest Times to 1750. Accessed 5 Feb 2013.
  138. "Medieval English society". University of Wisconsin. Retrieved September 5, 2009.
  139. Thomas, Hugh (2006). The Slave Trade: History of the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1440–1870. Weidenfeld & Nicholson. p. 35. ISBN 978-0753820568.
  140. Hayes, Diana (2003), "Reflections on Slavery", in Curran, Charles E. (ed.), Change in Official Catholic Moral Teaching, Paulist, p. 67.
  141. "Sublimus Dei". Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  142. Thomas, Hugh (2003). Rivers of Gold: The Rise of the Spanish Empire. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. pp. 258–62. ISBN 0-297-64563-3.
  143. Brian Glyn Williams (2013). "The Sultan's Raiders: The Military Role of the Crimean Tatars in the Ottoman Empire" (PDF). The Jamestown Foundation. p. 27.
  144. Phillips, Jr, William D. (1985). Slavery from Roman times to the Early Transatlantic Trade. Manchester: Manchester University Press. p. 37. ISBN 978-0-7190-1825-1.
  145. David Nicolle, The Janissaries (Osprey Publishing, 1995)
  146. "Famous Battles in History The Turks and Christians at Lepanto". Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  147. 1 2 Mikhail Kizilov. "Slave Trade in the Early Modern Crimea From the Perspective of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources". Oxford University.
  148. Davies, Brian (2007). Warfare, State and Society on the Black Sea Steppe,1500–1700. p. 17. ISBN 0-415-23986-9.
  149. Anderson, Perry (1996). Passages from antiquity to feudalism. Verso. p. 141. ISBN 1-85984-107-4.
  150. Slavery in the Middle Ages. Historymedren. about. com
  151. The Saxon Slave-Market. First published in Bristol Magazine July 2006.
  152. Träldom. Nordisk familjebok / Uggleupplagan. 30. Tromsdalstind – Urakami /159–160, 1920. (In Swedish)
  153. "Slaves in Saudi". Naeem Mohaiemen. The Daily Star. July 27, 2004.
  154. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Welcome to Encyclopædia Britannica's Guide to Black History". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2014-10-06. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  155. "Historical survey: The international slave trade". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2014-10-14.
  156. slave-trade. JewishEncyclopedia. com
  157. Lal, K. S. "Muslim Slave System in Medieval India". New Delhi: Aditya Prakashan. Archived from the original on 2012-08-13.
  158. Perbi, Akosua (April 5, 2001). "Slavery and the Slave Trade in Pre-colonial Africa" (PDF). Retrieved August 11, 2016.
  159. David P. Forsythe (2009). "Encyclopedia of Human Rights, Volume 1". Oxford University Press. p. 464. ISBN 0195334027
  160. "Historical survey: Ways of ending slavery". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on 2014-10-16.
  161. "Slavery (sociology)". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  162. Mee, Arthur; Hammerton, J. A.; Innes, Arthur D.;"Harmsworth history of the world: Volume 7", 1907, Carmelite House, London; at p. 5193.
  163. Darjusz Kołodziejczyk, as reported by Mikhail Kizilov (2007). "Slaves, Money Lenders, and Prisoner Guards:The Jews and the Trade in Slaves and Captivesin the Crimean Khanate". The Journal of Jewish Studies. p. 2.
  164. "Nazi slave fund passes final hurdle". BBC News. May 30, 2001.
  165. Baepler, B. "White Slaves, African Masters 1st Edition." White Slaves, African Masters 1st Edition by Baepler. University of Chicago Press, n.d. Web. 07 Jan. 2013. p. 5
  166. "History – British History in depth: British Slaves on the Barbary Coast". BBC. Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  167. "Malawi Slave Routes and Dr. David Livingstone Trail". UNESCO World Heritage Centre.
  168. Steven Mintz. "Digital History Slavery Fact Sheets". Digital History. Archived from the original on 2014-02-09. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  169. Kevin Shillington (2005). Encyclopedia of African history. Michigan University Press. p. 1401. ISBN 1-57958-455-1
  170. Slow Death for Slavery: The Course of Abolition in Northern Nigeria, 1897–1936 (review), Project MUSE – Journal of World History
  171. ""Freedom is a good thing but it means a dearth of slaves": Twentieth Century Solutions to the Abolition of Slavery" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 15, 2011. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  172. Humphrey J. Fisher (2001). Slavery in the History of Muslim Black Africa. Hurst & Company. pp. 33–. ISBN 978-1-85065-524-4. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  173. Willem A. Veenhoven (January 1, 1977). Case Studies on Human Rights And Fundamental Freedoms: A World Survey. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. pp. 440–. ISBN 978-90-247-1956-3. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  174. The East African slave trade. BBC World Service |The Story of Africa.
  175. Mikhail Kizilov. "Slave Trade in the Early Modern Crimea From the Perspective of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources". Journal of Early Modern History (2007) 11#1. pp. 1–31.
  176. 1 2 3 4 W. G. Clarence-Smith (2006). "Islam And The Abolition Of Slavery". Oxford University Press. pp. 13–16. ISBN 0195221516
  177. "Sexual slavery – the harem". BBC – Religion & Ethics. Archived from the original on 2009-05-21.
  178. "The Freeing of the Slaves". Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  179. Darrel P. Kaiser (2006). Origin & Ancestors Families Karle & Kaiser Of the German-Russian Volga Colonies. Darrel P. Kaiser. ISBN 978-1-4116-9894-9. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  180. "Slavery". Encyclopædia Britannica. May 19, 2009.
  181. A. Tom Grunfeld (1996). The Making of Modern Tibet. M. E. Sharpe. ISBN 978-1-56324-714-9. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  182. James Bryant Lewis (November 10, 2003). Frontier Contact Between Chosŏn Korea and Tokugawa Japan. Psychology Press. pp. 31–. ISBN 978-0-7007-1301-1. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  183. "Slavery in Nineteenth-Century Northern Thailand (p. 4 of 6)". Kyoto Review of South East Asia; (Colquhoun 1885:53).
  184. "Slavery in Nineteenth-Century Northern Thailand: Archival Anecdotes and Village Voices". The Kyoto Review of South Asia. p. 3 of 6. Archived from the original on 2012-03-05.
  185. "Aztec Social Structure". The University of Texas at Austin.
  186. Joan E. Goodman; Tom McNeely (February 1, 2001). A Long and Uncertain Journey: The 27,000 Mile Voyage of Vasco Da Gama. Mikaya Press. ISBN 978-0-9650493-7-5. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  187. 1 2 3 de Oliveira Marques, António Henrique R. (1972). History of Portugal. Columbia University Press, ISBN 0-231-03159-9, pp. 158–60, 362–70.
  188. K. J. P. Lowe (May 26, 2005). Black Africans In Renaissance Europe. Cambridge University Press. pp. 156–. ISBN 978-0-521-81582-6. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  189. David Northrup (April 4, 2002). Africa's Discovery of Europe: 1450 to 1850. Oxford University Press. pp. 8–. ISBN 978-0-19-514084-2. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  190. Klein, Herbert. The Atlantic Slave Trade.
  191. "The World Factbook".
  192. "Health In Slavery". Archived from the original on 2006-10-03.
  193. Donoghue, John (2010). Out of the Land of Bondage": The English Revolution and the Atlantic Origins of Abolition (PDF). The American Historical Review.
  194. Higginbotham, A. Leon (1975). In the Matter of Color: Race and the American Legal Process: The Colonial Period. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780195027457.
  195. Billings, Warren (January 26, 2009). The Old Dominion in the Seventeenth Century: A Documentary History of Virginia, 1606–1700. pp. 286–87. ISBN 1-4429-6126-0.
  196. Disasters at Sea: A Visual History of Infamous Shipwrecks by Liz Mechem
  197. D. Moore. (1997) "A General History of Blackbeard the Pirate, the Queen Anne's Revenge and the Adventure". In Tributaries, Volume VII, 1997. pp. 31–35. (North Carolina Maritime History Council)
  198. Scott, Thomas Allan (July 1995). Cornerstones of Georgia history. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 9780820317434.
  199. "Thurmond: Why Georgia's founder fought slavery". Archived from the original on 2012-04-01. Retrieved October 4, 2009.
  200. Steven Mintz. "Was slavery the engine of economic growth?". Digital History. Archived from the original on 2012-05-13. Retrieved April 18, 2009.
  201. "Ending the Slavery Blame-Game". The New York Times. April 22, 2010.
  202. The Transatlantic Slave Trade Alexander Ives Bortolot. Department of Art History and Archaeology, Columbia University.
  203. Nigeria – The Slave Trade. Source: U. S. Library of Congress.
  204. 1 2 Matt Schaffer (2005). "Bound to Africa : the Mandinka Legacy in the New World" (PDF). History in Africa. 32: 321–69. Retrieved 2015-09-30.
  205. Ronald Segal (1995). The Black Diaspora: Five Centuries of the Black Experience Outside Africa. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux. p. 4. ISBN 0-374-11396-3. It is now estimated that 11,863,000 slaves were shipped across the Atlantic. [Note in original: Paul E. Lovejoy, "The Impact of the Atlantic Slave Trade on Africa: A Review of the Literature, " in Journal of African History 30 (1989), p. 368.] ... It is widely conceded that further revisions are more likely to be upward than downward.
  206. Rubinstein, W. D. (2004). Genocide: a history. Pearson Education. pp. 76–78. ISBN 0-582-50601-8.
  207. Indentured Servitude in Colonial America. Deanna Barker, Frontier Resources.
  208. Higginbotham, A. Leon (1975). In the Matter of Color: Race and the American Legal Process: The Colonial Period. Greenwood Press. ISBN 9780195027457.
  209. Foner, Philip S. (1980). "History of Black Americans: From Africa to the emergence of the cotton kingdom". Oxford University Press.
  210. Selling Poor Steven. Philip Burnham, American Heritage Magazine.
  211. 1860 Census Results, The Civil War Home Page.
  212. "Small Truth Papering Over a Big Lie". The Atlantic. 2010-08-09. Retrieved 2015-09-29.
  213. Stephen D. Behrendt, David Richardson, and David Eltis, W. E. B. Du Bois Institute for African and African-American Research, Harvard University. Based on "records for 27,233 voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas". Stephen Behrendt (1999). "Transatlantic Slave Trade". Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience. New York: Basic Civitas Books. ISBN 0-465-00071-1.
  214. "African-Americans". Archived from the original on October 30, 2006.
  215. Sons Of Providence: The Brown Brothers, the Slave Trade, and the American Revolution By Charles Rappleye. 2006 Simon & Schuster. 978-0743266871
  216. Richard S. Newman, Transformation of American abolitionism: fighting slavery in the early Republic chapter 1
  217. Kolchin p. 96
  218. Berlin pp. 161–62
  219. 1 2 Berlin pp. 168–69. Kolchin p. 96. Kolchin notes that Fogel and Engerman maintained that 84% of slaves moved with their families but "most other scholars assign far greater weight ... to slave sales. " Ransome (p. 582) notes that Fogel and Engermann based their conclusions on the study of some counties in Maryland in the 1830s and attempt to extrapolate that as reflective of the entire South over the entire period.
  220. 1 2 Robert C. Davis (December 5, 2003). Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500–1800. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-333-71966-4. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  221. Davies, Rees (July 1, 2003). "British Slaves on the Barbary Coast". BBC. Archived from the original on 2009-02-08.
  222. "The Crimean Tatars and their Russian-Captive Slaves" (PDF). Eizo Matsuki, Mediterranean Studies Group at Hitotsubashi University.
  223. Halil Inalcik. "Servile Labor in the Ottoman Empire" in A. Ascher, B. K. Kiraly, and T. Halasi-Kun (eds), The Mutual Effects of the Islamic and Judeo-Christian Worlds: The East European Pattern, Brooklyn College, 1979, pp. 25–43.
  224. Orest Subtelny (2000). Ukraine: A History. University of Toronto Press. pp. 106–. ISBN 978-0-8020-8390-6. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  225. Bostom, Andrew G. "Articles: The living legacy of jihad slavery". Retrieved 2015-09-29.
  226. Soldier Khan By Mike Bennighof, Ph. D. September 2007
  227. "Islam and Slavery" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2014.
  228. Willem Adriaan Veenhoven; Winifred Crum Ewing; Stichting Plurale Samenlevingen (1975). Case Studies on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms: A World Survey. BRILL. pp. 452–. ISBN 978-90-247-1779-8. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  229. "Religion & Ethics – Islam and slavery: Abolition". BBC. Archived from the original on 2009-05-21. Retrieved May 1, 2010.
  230. Bernard Lewis (April 30, 1992). Race and Slavery in the Middle East: An Historical Enquiry. Oxford University Press. pp. 53–. ISBN 978-0-19-505326-5. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  231. ""Horrible Traffic in Circassian Women—Infanticide in Turkey, " New York Daily Times, August 6, 1856". Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  232. "Soldier Khan". Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  233. "Swahili Coast". 2002-10-17. Retrieved 2015-09-30.
  234. Remembering East African slave raids, BBC News, March 30, 2007
  235. Focus on the slave trade, BBC News, September 3, 2001
  236. Gwyn Campbell; Suzanne Miers; Joseph Calder Miller (2007). Women and Slavery: Africa, the Indian Ocean world, and the medieval north Atlantic. Ohio University Press. pp. 173–. ISBN 978-0-8214-1724-9. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  237. Milton, Giles (2004). White Gold: the Extraordinary Story of Thomas Pellow and North Africa's One Million European Slaves. Hodder. p. 352. ISBN 0-340-79469-0.
  238. "When Europeans were Slaves". Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  239. Davis, Robert. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast and Italy, 1500–1800. Based on "records for 27,233 voyages that set out to obtain slaves for the Americas". Stephen Behrendt, "Transatlantic Slave Trade", Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African American Experience (New York: Basic Civitas Books, 1999), ISBN 0-465-00071-1.
  240. Clarence-Smith, William. "Religions and the abolition of slavery – a comparative approach" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-08-28.
  241. The Earth and Its Peoples: A Global History. Cengage Learning. 2009. p. 165. ISBN 9780618992386.
  242. Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition. Greenwood Publishing Group. 2011. p. 155. ISBN 9780313331435.
  243. 1 2 3 Abolition Movement. Online Encyclopedia
  244. S. M. Wise, Though the Heavens May Fall, Pimlico (2005)
  245. "Royal Navy and the Slave Trade : Battles : History : Royal Navy". Retrieved 2015-09-29.
  246. "Devon – Abolition – Sailing against slavery". BBC. 2007-02-28. Retrieved 2015-09-29.
  247. "The West African Sqron and slave trade". Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  248. "Anti-Slavery International: UNESCO Education". 2002-11-13. Retrieved 2015-09-29.
  249. Foner, Eric. "Forgotten step towards freedom, " The New York Times, December 30, 2007.
  250. "Soldiers and Sailors Database – The Civil War (U.S. National Park Service)". 2015-09-19. Archived from the original on 2007-07-14. Retrieved 2015-09-29.
  251. "Ten days from today I left the plantation".
  252. Kathleen Collins, "The Scourged Back," History of Photography 9 (January 1985): 43–45.
  253. "Home Page | Agrarian Studies" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on May 2, 2013. Retrieved 2015-09-30.
  254. "The law against slavery". Religion & Ethics – Ethical issues. BBC News. Retrieved October 5, 2008.
  255. 1 2 "Pope Francis And Other Religious Leaders Sign Declaration Against Modern Slavery". The Huffington Post.
  256. North, Douglass C.; Robert Paul Thomas (December 1971). "The Rise and Fall of the Manorial System: A Theoretical Model". The Journal of Economic History. 31 (4): 777–803. doi:10.1017/S0022050700074623. JSTOR 2117209.
  257. Domar, Evsey D. (March 1970). "The Causes of Slavery or Serfdom: A Hypothesis". The Journal of Economic History. 30 (1): 18–32. JSTOR 2116721.
  258. Lagerlöf, Nils-Petter (November 12, 2006). "Slavery and other property rights". Ideas. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
  259. "Technology". January 4, 2008. Archived from the original on April 23, 2008. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
  260. John R. McKivigan; Mitchell Snay (November 1, 1998). Religion and the Antebellum Debate Over Slavery. University of Georgia Press. pp. 68–. ISBN 978-0-8203-2076-2. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  261. Charles L. Griswold (1999). Adam Smith and the Virtues of Enlightenment. Cambridge University Press. pp. 198–. ISBN 978-0-521-62891-4. Retrieved May 31, 2012.
  262. 1 2 Bryan Caplan. "Economics of Slavery Lecture Notes".
  263. Robert E. Wright, Fubarnomics (Buffalo, N. Y.: Prometheus, 2010), 83–116.
  264. "Cape Town and Surrounds.". Retrieved July 18, 2012.
  265. "Slavery in Brazil.". Historical Boys' Clothing. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
  266. "Living conditions of slaves.". Historical Boys' Clothing. Retrieved July 18, 2012.
  267. Scheen, Thomas (28 October 2008). "Niger: Ehemalige Sklavin erhält Entschädigung". (in German). Johannesburg. Archived from the original on October 31, 2008. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
  268. Adu Boahen, Topics In West African History p. 110
  269. "Afrikan Involvement In Atlantic Slave Trade, By Kwaku Person-Lynn, Ph. D". Archived from the original on April 18, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  270. João C. Curto. Álcool e Escravos: O Comércio Luso-Brasileiro do Álcool em Mpinda, Luanda e Benguela durante o Tráfico Atlântico de Escravos (c. 1480–1830) e o Seu Impacto nas Sociedades da África Central Ocidental. Translated by Márcia Lameirinhas. Tempos e Espaços Africanos Series, vol. 3. Lisbon: Editora Vulgata, 2002. ISBN 978-972-8427-24-5.
  271. 1 2 "Ending the Slavery Blame-Game ". The New York Times. April 22, 2010.
  272. 1 2 "Benin Officials Apologize For Role In U.s. Slave Trade". Chicago Tribune. May 1, 2000.
  273. What the papers say, BBC News, September 22, 2006
  274. Blair 'sorrow' over slave trade, BBC News, November 27, 2006.
  275. Blair 'sorry' for UK slavery role BBC. Retrieved February 23, 2012.
  276. "Virginia 'sorry' for slavery role". BBC News. February 25, 2007. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  277. Hale, Beth (August 23, 2007). "Livingstone breaks down in tears at slave trade memorial". Daily Mail. London. Archived from the original on 2007-11-18. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
  278. Congress Apologizes for Slavery, Jim Crow NPR. Retrieved October 20, 2011
  279. "Barack Obama praises Senate slavery apology". Telegraph. June 19, 2009
  280. "Obama praises 'historic' Senate slavery apology". Google News. Agence France-Presse. June 19, 2009. Archived from the original on February 25, 2014. Retrieved July 22, 2009.
  281. Nitkin, David; Harry Merritt (March 2, 2007). "A New Twist to an Intriguing Family History". Baltimore Sun. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007.
  282. "Gaddafi apologizes for Arab slave traders". Press TV. October 11, 2010.
  283. Spiegel, Marjorie. The Dreaded Comparison: Human and Animal Slavery, New York: Mirror Books, 1996.
  284. Peter Krembs. "An Idea Not Worth Drafting: Conscription is Slavery". Retrieved 2015-09-29.
  285. Dave Kopel. "Nationalized Slavery; A policy Italy should dump". Archived from the original on October 12, 2007.. Refers to both the military and national service requirements of Italy as slavery
  286. e.g., Machan, Tibor R. (April 13, 2000). "Tax Slavery". Ludwig von Mises Institute. Retrieved October 9, 2006.
  287. "Psychiatric Slavery – Thomas Stephen Szasz – Google Books". Retrieved 2015-09-29.
  288. "Slavery and psychiatry".
  289. "Are you a wage slave?". World Socialist Party of the United States. April 30, 2010. Archived from the original on June 29, 2013. Retrieved February 17, 2014.
  290. Ellerman 1992.
  291. Thompson 1966, p. 599.
  292. Thompson 1966, p. 912.
  293. Ostergaard 1997, p. 133.
  294. Lazonick 1990, p. 37.
  295. "wage slave". Retrieved 4 March 2013.
  296. "wage slave". Retrieved 4 March 2013.
  297. "...vulgar are the means of livelihood of all hired workmen whom we pay for mere manual labour, not for artistic skill; for in their case the very wage they receive is a pledge of their slavery." – De Officiis
  298. Marx 1990, p. 1006: "[L]abour-power, a commodity sold by the worker himself."
  299. Another one, of course, being the capitalists' theft from workers via surplus-value.
  300. Nelson 1995, p. 158. This Marxist objection is what motivated Nelson's essay, which argues that labour is not, in fact, a commodity.
  301. Michael T. Martin and David C. Wall, "The Politics of Cine-Memory: Signifying Slavery in the History Film," in Robert A. Rosenstone and Constantin Parvulesu, eds. A Companion to the Historical Film (Wiley-Blackwell, 2013), pp. 445–67.
  302. Melvyn Stokes, D.W. Griffith's the Birth of a Nation: A History of the Most Controversial Motion Picture of All Time (2008)
  303. Robert E. Morsberger, "Slavery and 'The Santa Fe Trail,' or, John Brown on Hollywood's Sour Apple Tree," American Studies (1977) 18#2 pp. 87–98. online
  304. Hernán Vera; Andrew M. Gordon (2003). Screen saviors: Hollywood fictions of whiteness. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 54–56. ISBN 9780847699476.
  305. William L. Van Deburg, Slavery and Race in American Popular Culture (1984) covers films, fiction, television, and the stage.
  306. Natalie Zemon Davis, Slaves on Screen: Film and Historical Vision (2002) ch 2
  307. Davis, Slaves on Screen: Film and Historical Vision (2002) ch 3
  308. Steven Mintz (1998). "Spielberg's Amistad and the History Classroom". The History Teacher. 31: 370–73. JSTOR 494885.
  309. Davis, Slaves on Screen: Film and Historical Vision (2002)
  310. Ira Berlin (2004). "American Slavery in History and Memory and the Search for Social Justice". Journal of American History. 90: 1251–68. JSTOR 3660347.
  311. "Films about Slavery and the transAtlantic Slave Trade". Ama. Retrieved June 3, 2011.

Bibliography and further reading

Surveys and reference

Uncited sources
United States
Slavery in the modern era
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Slavery.
Look up slavery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikiquote has quotations related to: Slavery
Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article Slavery.



This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/4/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.